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X-Ray Microscopy Of Multiphase Polymeric Materials

  • H. Ade (a1), A. P. Smith (a1), G. R. Zhuang (a1), B. Wood (a2), I. Plotzker (a2), E. Rightor (a3), D.-J. Liu (a4), S.-C. Lui (a4) and C. Sloop (a5)...

Abstract

We have utilized the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at Brookhaven National Laboratory to acquire high energy resolution spectra of various polymers and to investigate the bulk characteristics of multiphasic polymeric materials with chemical sensitivity at a spatial resolution of about 50 nm. We present studies ranging from phase separated liquid crystalline polyesters and polyurethanes to various polymer blends. Improvements in the NEXAFS imaging and spectral acquisition protocol in the recent past provide much improved spectral fidelity and include in situ energy calibration with CO2.

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1. Ade, H., Zhang, X., Cameron, S., Costello, C., Kirz, J., and Williams, S., Science 258, 972 (1992), and H. Ade, A. P. Smith, S. Cameron, R. Cieslinski, B. Hsiao, G. Mitchell, and E. Rightor, Polymer 36, 1843–1848 (1995).
2. see, for example, Stöhr, J., NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, Berlin, 1992).
3. Ade, H. and Hsiao, B., Science 262, 14271429 (1993).
4. Rightor, E. G., Mitchell, G., Fisher, D., Hitchcock, A.P., Urquhart, S.G., Leapman, R.D., Smith, A.P., Ade, H., Shin, H. J., Warwick, T., to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem.
5. Kirz, J., Burge, R., and Rarback, H., Ann. NY. Acad. Sci 342, 135147 (1980), and J. Kirz, I-I. Ade, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, K. H. Ko, S. Lindaas, I. McNulty, D. Sayre, S. Williams, and X. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 557–563 (1992).
6. Jacobsen, C, Williams, S., Anderson, E., Brown, M. T., Buckley, C. J., Kern, D., Kirz, J., Rivers, M., and Zhang, X., Optics Comm. 86, 351 (1991).
7. Anderson, E. and Kern, D., in X-ray Microscopy III, Michette, A., Morrison, G., and Buckley, C., eds. (Springer, Berlin 1992).
8. Zhang, X., Jacobsen, C., and Williams, S., in Soft X-ray Microscopy, Jacobsen, C. and Trebes, J., eds., Proc. SPIE 1741, 251259 (1992).
9. Urquhart, S. G., Hitchcock, A. P., Leapman, R. D., Priester, R. D., and Rightor, E. G., “Analysis of Polyurethanes Using Core Excitation Spectroscopy. Part I: Model Polyurethane Foam Polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. B, Polym. Phys. 33, 1593 (1995).
10. Urquhart, S. G., Hitchcock, A. P., Priester, R. D., and Rightor, E. G., “Analysis of Polyurethanes Using Core Excitation Spectroscopy. Part II: Inner Shell Spectra of Ether, Urea and Carbamate Model Compounds,” J. Polym. Sci. B, Polym. Phys. 33, 1603 (1995).

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