Transcrystallization of semicrystalline polymers, such as PEEK, PEKK and PPS, in high performance composites has been investigated. It is found that PPDT aramid fiber and pitch-based carbon fiber induce a transcrystalline interphase in all three polymers, whereas in PAN-based carbon fiber and glass fiber systems, transcrystallization occurs only under specific circumstances. Epitaxy is used to explain the surface-induced transcrystalline interphase in the first case. In the latter case, transcrystallization is probably not due to epitaxy, but may be attributed to the thermal conductivity mismatch. Plasma treatment on the fiber surface showed a negligible effect on inducing transcrystallization, implying that surface-free energy was not important. A microdebonding test was adopted to evaluate the interfacial strength between the fiber and matrix. Our preliminary results did not reveal any effect on the fiber/matrix interfacial strength of transcrystallinity.