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Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Applications

  • Louis George Carreiro (a1) and A. Alan Burke (a2)


The Navy is currently investigating solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for the propulsion of unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). SOFCs are being targeted because of their potential to carry out extended missions, which are not possible using current battery technology. In addition, they offer the advantages of being able to utilize energy-dense hydrocarbon fuels and are self-sustaining while supplying heat to reforming processes.

The SOFC system evaluated in this study consisted of a Ni-YSZ-based, 6-cell stack with anode supported cells close-coupled with a micro-channel steam reformer. Various reformate gas compositions, steam to carbon ratios and flow rates were tested to gather a range of data under the expected operating conditions of UUVs. The system was operated for more than 70 hours consuming approximately 0.5 to 0.7 ml/min of fuel and producing about 100 to 230 watts of power. The integrated stack and reformer displayed stable performance with a fuel utilization of 80% and an efficiency of 50% at maximum power output.



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1. Ivers-Tiffee, E., Weber, A. and Herbstritt, D., “Materials and Technologies for SOFCComponents,” Journal of European Ceramic Society. 21 (2001) 18051811.
2. Ming, Qimin, Healey, Todd, Allen, Lloyd and Irving, Patricia, “Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels,” Catalysis Today. 77 (2002) 5164.
3. Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 6th Edition, p. 2341.
4. Burke, A. A. and Carreiro, L. G., “System Modeling of an Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System for Unmanned,” Undersea Vehicles, Journal of Power Sources, 158(1), 428435 (2006).
5. “Stack Installation and Standard Procedures,” Versa Power Systems Ltd, confidential.



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