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Silicon Delta Doping in GaAs: An Ongoing Enigma

  • R. C. Newman (a1), M. J. Ashwin (a1), J. Wagner (a2), M. R. Fahy (a1), L. Hart (a1), S. N. Holmes (a1) and C. Roberts (a1)...

Abstract

Infrared (IR) absorption and Raman scattering are reported from the localized vibrational modes (LVM) of Al and Si δ-layer superlattices in MBE (100) GaAs grown at 400°C as a function of the total areal concentrations, [A1]A and [Si]A respectively. The Al superlattices show the expected behavior on passing from sub-monolayer (ML) to thicker layers (thin AlAs) since the impurities still occupy only Ga-sites. The behavior is very different from that found for Si δ-layers. In addition to SiGa reported previously, we now show that SiAs, SiGa-SiAs pairs and the electron trap Si-X are also present in Si δ-layers and superlattices for 0.05 ≤ [Si]A≤ 0.5 ML. The conductivity of these structures and the concentrations of substitutional Si in GaAs at all sites fall to zero for [Si]A> 0.5 ML but a Raman feature at 470–490 cm−1, attributed to the vibrations of covalent Si-Si bonds is then detected. This feature is not observed in structures containing very closely spaced dilute (0.01 ML) Si δ-planes. It is inferred that long-range Si diffusion does not occur in the bulk crystal, although there could be surface diffusion during Si deposition. The maximum measured carrier concentrations are always less than 2 × 1019 cm−3, the DX limit. The redistribution of Si amongst the various lattice sites is discussed in terms of SiGa DX-like displacements occurring during growth, followed by local thermally activated diffusion jumps. It is speculated that AsGa antisite defects and Ga-vacancies are produced by this process. The reason why the Si δ-layer is non-conducting remains unclear.

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