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Self-Aligned Formation of C54 Titanium Germanosilicide Using Rapid Thermal Processing and Application to Raised, Ultrashallow Junctions

  • Stanton P. Ashburn (a1), Douglas T. Grider (a1), Mehmet C. ÖztÜrk (a1), Gari Harris (a2) and Dennis M. Maher (a2)...

Abstract

In this paper we present results on solid state reactions between Ti and Si1−xGex alloys selectively deposited onto Si (100) substrates using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for contact applications in novel device structures. Germanium concentrations of 0%, 30%, 50%, and 100% within the reacting Si1−xGex alloy are investigated. The Si1−xGex alloys (approximately 2500 ° thick) are deposited using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). Titanium is then deposited by evaporation. Sheet resistance measurements as a function of RTA temperature (10 second anneals) provide indications of various phases that occur during the reactions through the formation of constant sheet resistance plateaus. The RTA temperature required for the formation of a minimum resistivity phase is observed to increase for increasing Ge concentrations within the reacting Si1−xGex alloy. Using x-ray diffraction we have determined that for the reactions of Ti with Si the C49 TiSi2 metastable phase forms prior to the minimum resistivity C54 TiSi2 phase. For the reactions between Ti and Ge a minimum resistivity TiGe2 phase also with the C54 structure forms, however, this phase is preceeded not by a C49 TiGe2 structure, but by a Ti6Ge5 phase. The minimum resistivity phases for Ti reactions with 30% and 50% Ge Si1−xGex, alloy reactions also have a C54 structure with unit cell dimensions varying from that of TiSi2) to TiGe2 as the Ge concentration is increased. The grain structures for the reactions are investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). As the Ge concentration within the reacting alloy decreases the lateral grain size for the C54 structures increases. A self-aligned germanosilicide process is identified and used to fabricate raised, ultrashallow junctions with Ti(SiGe)2 (germanosilicide) contacts. Forward and reverse bias characterization of the junctions indicate that leakage current induced during silicidation can be eliminated using raised junctions with germanosilicide contacts.

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