In this work we investigate the lattice damage induced in ZnO implanted with potential group V acceptors by means of Raman scattering. ZnO samples were implanted with N and P to high doses and Raman spectra were obtained prior and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Characteristic disorder-activated modes are observed in the spectra that can be used to assess the degree of lattice damage. ZnO samples were also implanted with native Zn+ and O+ ions under similar conditions to study specific effects of implantation with N+ and P+. As revealed by the intensity of disorder-activated bands, the implantation induced lattice damage is considerably higher for Zn+ than for the lighter O+ ion. In samples implanted with N+ additional Raman peaks emerge that are not observed either in the samples implanted with the native Zn+ and O+ ions or in the samples implanted with P+, thus pointing to a local vibrational mode of N or a N complex as the origin of these modes. Disorder-activated features are fully removed by RTA, indicating a high degree of lattice recovery by RTA even for the heavily damaged ZnO samples implanted with Zn+.