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Polaronic and Bipolaronic Enhancement of Second Hyperpolarizabilities in Dithienyl Polyenes from Ab Initio Quantum Methods

  • Steven Trohalaki (a1), Robert J. Zellmer (a1) and Ruth Pachter (a2)


Spangler and He [1,2] have shown that dithienyl polyenes form extremely stable bipolaronic dications when oxidatively doped in solution. Previous theoretical studies applied empirical methods to predict bipolaronic enhancement of hyperpolarizabilities for simple polyenes [3,4]. Here, we employ density functional theory to optimize the gas-phase molecular conformations of neutral, cationic, and dicationic forms of a series of dithienyl polyenes, where the number of ethene units, N, is varied from 1–5. Ab initio Hartree-Fock, generalized valence bond, configuration interaction, and Møller-Plesset calculations demonstrate that the dications are farily well described with a closed shell and therefore have little biradicaloid character. Second hyperpolarizabilities, γ, are subsequently calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock theory and a finite field methodology. As expected, γ increases with the number of ethene units for a given molecular charge. The cations also show the largest increase in γ with N. For a given value of N, the cations display the largest γ values. However, if we treat the dication as a triplet, which might be present in solution, then it displays the largest γ.



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