We have done a comparative study of carbon-doped GaN and undoped GaN utilizing photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies in order to investigate deep levels involved in yellow luminescence (YL) and red luminescence (RL). When the GaN was excited by above-bandgap light, red luminescence (RL) centered at 1.82 eV was the dominant below-gap PL from undoped GaN, but carbon-doped GaN below-gap PL was dominated by yellow luminescence (YL) centered at 2.2 eV. When exciting PL below the band-gap with 2.4 eV light, undoped GaN had a RL peak centered at 1.5 eV and carbon-doped GaN had a RL peak centered at 1.65 eV. PLE spectra of carbon-doped GaN, detecting at 1.56 eV, exhibited a strong, broad excitation band extending from about 2.1 to 2.8 eV with an unusual shape that may be due to two or more overlapping excitation bands. This RL PLE band was not observed in undoped GaN. We also demonstrate that PL spectra excited by below gap light in GaN films on sapphire substrates are readily contaminated by 1.6-1.8 eV and 2.1-2.5 eV chromium-related emission from the substrate. A complete characterization of the Cr emission and excitation bands for sapphire substrates enables the determination of the excitation and detection wavelengths required to obtain GaN PL and PLE spectra that are free of contributions from substrate emission.