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Optimizing sulfurisation conditions in the fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layers from electroplated precursors

  • Jonathan James Scragg (a1), Daniel Wolverson (a2), Guillaume Zoppi (a3) and Laurence M Peter (a4)

Abstract

Using direct photoelectrochemical measurement of the photocurrent obtained from Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layers made by a two-stage electroplating-sulfurisation process, the influence of processing conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) on material quality was investigated with a view to understanding the long sulfurisation times usually found in the literature. The improvement in photocurrent due to KCN etching was also studied, and seems to be due both to removal of surface phases and also slower etching of the bulk material. The optimum sulfurisation time was found to be around 50 minutes, despite evidence that sulfur incorporation and phase formation are complete within 5 minutes. Slow grain growth was suggested as a rate-limiting factor, and a rate constant was derived based on a simple model.

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Optimizing sulfurisation conditions in the fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layers from electroplated precursors

  • Jonathan James Scragg (a1), Daniel Wolverson (a2), Guillaume Zoppi (a3) and Laurence M Peter (a4)

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