Nondestructive damage sensing and load transfer mechanisms of thermal treated carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites were investigated using electro-micromechanical technique. Carbon black (CB) was used only for the comparison. Electro-micromechanical techniques were applied to obtain the fiber damage and stress transferring effect of carbon nanocomposites with their contents. Thermal treatment and temperature affected on apparent modulus and electrical properties on nanocomposites due to enhanced inherent properties of each CNMs. Coefficient of variation (COV) of volumetric electrical resistance can be used to obtain the dispersion degree indirectly for various CNMs. Dispersion and surface modification are very important parameters to obtain improved mechanical and electrical properties of CNMs for multifunctional applications. Further optimized functionalization and dispersion conditions will be investigated for the following work continuously.