Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Wfarddc North American Fly Ash Database

  • Hans S. Pietersen (a1), Simon P. Vriend (a2) and Gregory J. Mccarthy (a3)

Abstract

The database of chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of North American Fly ashes, assembled by the WFARDDC in North Dakota, was analyzed using multivariate statistics. Prior to the multivariate analysis, the data were rearranged in subgroups containing information on bulk-chemistry, glass chemistry, mineralogy and ASTM physical test results. These groups were analyzed individually. The multivariate technique used was Fuzzy C-Means Cluster Analysis, combined with Non-Linear Mapping. Analysis of the data-set indicates a relation between glass network former and network modifier content. The database shows that a subdivision on the basis of bulk CaO (< 11%; 11–20%; >20%) correlates well with the ASTM C618 Σ(SiO2 +Al2O3 +Fe2O3) and/or specific gravity. Mineralogical data indicate a subdivision into clusters containing varying amounts of mullite, quartz and/or ferrite spinel and a variety of Ca-containing minerals; high CaO ashes usually have high Ca-mineral contents. Of the CaO containing minerals, only portlandite contributed slightly to the compressive strength as defined by ASTM C618. Analysis of glass chemistry reveals smaller differences in absolute amounts of major oxides than would be expected on the basis of bulk chemistry alone. Surprisingly, the total glass content does not contribute significantly to 28 day compressive strength; multiple regression analysis only indicates a significant relation of particle size and specific gravity with the ASTM Pozzolanic Activity Index (portland cement). The Pozzolanic Activity Index with lime seems to be of limited importance in evaluating the performance of fly ashes as mineral admixtures in concrete. On the basis of the statistical analysis, suggestions for selection of important classifying variables are made.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vols. 43.65. 86, 113, 178, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990).
2. Helmuth, R., Fly Ash in Cement and Concrete, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, II (1987).
3. Fly Ash, Silica Fume. Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, edited by Malhotra, V.M. (American Concrete Institute SP–114, Trondheim, 1989).
4. Stevenson, R.J. and Larson, R.A. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by McCarthy, G.J. and Lauf, R.J., (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.43 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985) pp. 177186.
5. Stevenson, R.J. and Huber, T.P. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization, Utilization and Disposal, edited by McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P., Roy, D.M. and Diamond, S., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol. 86, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) pp. 99108.
6. Stevenson, R.J. and Huber, T.P. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disoosal, edited by McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P., Roy, D.M. and Hemmings, R.T., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.113, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) pp. 8798.
7. White, E.L., Roy, D.M. and Cady, P.D. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P., Roy, D.M. and Diamond, S., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 86 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) pp. 251264.
8. Pietersen, H.S., Vriend, S.P., Poorter, R.E.P. and Bijen, J.M.in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by Glasser, F.P. and Day, R.L., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.178 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1990) pp. 115126.
9. McCarthy, G.J., Solem, J.K., Manz, O.E. and Hassett, D.J. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by Day, R.L. and Glasser, F.P., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.178 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1990) pp. 333.
10. Standard Specification C618 and Standard Method C311, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol.04.02, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA (1987).
11. Howarth, R.J. and Sinding-Larsen R., R. in Statistics and Data Analysis in Geochemical Prospecting, edited by Howarth, R.J., 2, Chap. 6, pp. 207283. Elsevier.10.1016/B978-0-444-42038-1.50012-5
12. Zadeh, L.A., Inf. and Control 8, 338353 (1965).10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X
13. Bezdek, C.J., Ehrlich, R. and Full, W., FCM: the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, Comput. Geosci. 10, 191203 (1984).
14. Bezdek, C.J., Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms, Plenum Press (1981).10.1007/978-1-4757-0450-1
15. Gaans, P.F.M. van, Vriend, S.P., Wal, J. van der, Schuiling, R.D. in Intergral Rock analysis - a new approach to lithogeochemical exploration (Application: Carboniferous sediments of a coal exploration drilling, Limburg, The Netherlands), Institute of Earth Sciences, Dept. of Geochemistry, University of Utrecht, Contract MSM - 073 - NL (N), February 1986.
16. Everitt, B., Cluster Analysis, 2nd ed., Social Science Research Council, Halsted Press, New York (1980).
17. Sammon, J.W., IEEE Trans. Comput. C18, 401409 (1969).10.1109/T-C.1969.222678
18. Vriend, S.P., Practical Applications of Multivariate Statistics in Exploration Geochemistry, PhD. thesis, Utrecht University, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Netherlands (1990).
19. Hemmings, R.T. and Berry, E.E. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P., Roy, D.M. and Hemmings, R.T., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.113, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1988) pp. 338.
20. Pietersen, H. S, Fraay, A.L.A. and Bijen, J.M. in Fly Ash and Coal Convcrsion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by Day, R.L. and Glaser, F.P., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol.178, (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1990) pp. 139157.
21. Pratt, P.L. in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal, edited by Day, R.L. and Glasser, F.P., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 178 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1990) pp. 185.

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Wfarddc North American Fly Ash Database

  • Hans S. Pietersen (a1), Simon P. Vriend (a2) and Gregory J. Mccarthy (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed