Skip to main content Accessibility help

Million-Line Failure Distributions for Narrow Interconnects

  • M. C. Bartelt (a1), J. J. Hoyt (a1), N. C. Bartelt (a1), J. J. Dike (a2) and W. G. Wolfer (a1)...


We examine the distribution of failure times in a simple and computationally efficient, yet reasonably authentic, model of interconnect reliability that allows consideration of statistically significant samples. The model includes an approximate description of the distribution of grain sizes and texture in narrow interconnects, an effective treatment of stress evolution associated with mass transport along grain boundaries, and local relaxation of stresses due to void formation. Failure time distributions for populations of idealized structures are analyzed to aid in interpretation of model behavior.



Hide All
1. Black, J.R., IEEE: New York (1967) p.148; IEEE Trans. Elect. Devices ED-16 (1969) p. 338.
2. Yue, J.T., Funsten, W.P., Taylor, R.V., IEEE: New York (1985) p. 126.
3. Verbruggen, A.H.t, IBM J. Res. Develop. 32 (1988) p.465; C.-K. Hu et al., ibid. 39 (1995) p.465; P.S. Ho and T. Kwok, Rep. Prog. Phys. 52 (1989) p.301; A. Scorzoni et al., Mat. Sci. Rep. 7 (1991) p. 143; H. Okabayashi, Mater. Sci. Eng.5 (1993) R11; M.D. Thouless, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 25 (1995) p.69; T.D. Sullivan, ibid. 26 (1996) p. 333.
4. Smith, C.S., Metal Interfaces (Am. Soc. Metals, 1952), p.65; H.V. Atkinson, Acta Metall. 36 (1988) p. 469; J.A. Glazier and D. Weaire, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 4 (1992) p.1867; N. Rivier, in Disorder and Granular Media, edited by D. Bideau and A. Hansen (Elsevier, 1993); see also various contributions in Modeling of Coarsening and Grain Growth, edited by S.P. Marsh and C.S. Pande (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA 1993).
5. Feltham, P., Acta Metall. 5 (1957) p.97; N.P. Louat, ibid. 22 (1974) p.721; S.K. Kurtz and F.M.A. Carpay,. App. Phys. 51 (1980) p.5725; 51 (1980) p.5745; F.N. Rhines and B.R. Patterson, Metall. Trans. 13A (1982) p.985; M.P. Anderson et al., Acta Metall. 32 (1984) p.783; 33 (1985) p.2233; C.S. Pande, ibid. 35 (1987) p.2671; 36 (1988) p.2161; J.E. Palmer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 62 (1987) p.2492; C.S. Pande and E. Dantsker, Acta Met. 38 (1990) p.945; H.J. Frost, C.V. Thompson, and D.T.Walton, ibid. 38 (1990) p. 14 5 5.
6. Fundamentals of Grain and Interphase Boundary Diffusion, Kaur, I., Mishin, Y., and Gust, W. (John Wiley, 1995); Interfaces in Crystalline Materials, A.P. Sutton and R.W. Balluffi (Oxford Science Publishers, 1996).
7. Korhonen, M.A., Borgesen, P., Tu, K.N., and Li, C.-Y., J. Appl. Phys. 73, p. 3790 (1993).
8. Niehof, J., de Graaff, H.C., and Verwey, J.F., MRS Proc. 309 (1993) p.295; U.E. Möckl, J.R. Loyd, and E. Arzt, ibid. 309 (1993) p.301; S. Shingubara et al., MRS Proc. 338 (1994) p.441; G.B. Alers, A.S. Oates, and N.L Beverly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) p.3600; J.R. Kraayeveld et al., ibid. 67 (1995) p. 1226.
9. Shatzkes, M. and Lloyd, J.R., J. Appl. Phys. 59 (1986) p.3890; L.P. Muray, L.C. Rathbun, and E.D. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53 (1988) p.1414; J. Cho and C. V. Thompson, ibid. 54 (1989) p.2577; J.R. Lloyd, SPIE 1596 (1991) p.106; J.R. Lloyd and J. Kitchin, J. Appl. Phys. 69 (1991) p. 2117; J. Kitchin and J.R. Lloyd, MRS 225 (1991) p. 27.
10. Attardo, M.J., Rutledge, R., and Jack, R.C., J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) p.4343.
11. Anderson, P.W. et al., Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) p.3519; A. Douglas Stone, J.D. Joannopoulos, and D.J. Chadi, ibid. 24 (1981) p.5583; S. Havlin, J.E. Kiefer, and G.H. Weiss, ibid. 38 (1988) p.4761; L. Baker, A.J. Giancola, and F. Allahdadi, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992) p.2724; O. Sotolongo-Costa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1992) p.42; R. Delannay, G. Le Caër, and R. Botet, J. Phys. A 29 (1996) p.6693; T. Antal and Z. Rácz, Phys. Rev. E 54 (1996) p. 2 25 6.
12. Filipi, R.G., Biery, G.A., and Wachnik, R.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) p. 1897.
13. Montroll, E.W. and Shlesinger, M.F., J. Stat. Phys. 32 (1983) p. 209.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Million-Line Failure Distributions for Narrow Interconnects

  • M. C. Bartelt (a1), J. J. Hoyt (a1), N. C. Bartelt (a1), J. J. Dike (a2) and W. G. Wolfer (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.