- Cited by 18
Lingk, C. and Gross, M. E. 1998. Recrystallization kinetics of electroplated Cu in damascene trenches at room temperature. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 84, Issue. 10, p. 5547.
Lingk, C. Gross, M. E. and Brown, W. L. 1999. X-ray diffraction pole figure evidence for (111) sidewall texture of electroplated Cu in submicron damascene trenches. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, Issue. 5, p. 682.
Brongersma, H. Vervoort, I. Judelwicz, M. Bender, H. Conard, T. Vandervorst, W. Beyer, G. Richard, E. Palmans, R. Lagrange, S. and Maex, K. 1999. Non-correlated behavior of sheet resistance and stress during self-annealing of electroplated copper. p. 290.
Harper, J. M. E. Cabral, C. Andricacos, P. C. Gignac, L. Noyan, I. C. Rodbell, K. P. and Hu, C. K. 1999. Mechanisms for Microstructure Evolution in Electroplated Copper Thin Films. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 564, Issue. ,
Harper, J. M. E. Cabral, C. Andricacos, P. C. Gignac, L. Noyan, I. C. Rodbell, K. P. and Hu, C. K. 1999. Mechanisms for microstructure evolution in electroplated copper thin films near room temperature. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue. 5, p. 2516.
Vanasupa, Linda Joo, Young-Chang Besser, Paul R. and Pramanick, Shekhar 1999. Texture analysis of damascene-fabricated Cu lines by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction and its impact on electromigration performance. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, Issue. 5, p. 2583.
Lingk, C. Gross, M. E. and Brown, W. L. 2000. Texture development of blanket electroplated copper films. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, Issue. 5, p. 2232.
Latt, Khin Maung Lee, Kangsoo Osipowicz, Thomas and Lee, Y.K 2001. Properties of electroplated copper thin film and its interfacial reactions in the EPCu/IMPCu/IMPTaN/SiO2/Si multilayer structure. Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 83, Issue. 1-3, p. 1.
Kobrinsky, Mauro J. Thompson, Carl V. and Gross, Mihal E. 2001. Diffusional creep in damascene Cu lines. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, Issue. 1, p. 91.
Zienert, Inka Besser, Paul Blum, Werner and Zschech, Ehrenfried 2001. Crystallographic Texture Characterization of Inlaid Copper Interconnects. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 672, Issue. ,
Rossnagel, S. M. and Kuan, T. S. 2002. Time development of microstructure and resistivity for very thin Cu films. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 1911.
Buckley, D. N. and Ahmed, S. 2003. Real Time Observation by Atomic Force Microscopy of Spontaneous Recrystallization at Room Temperature in Electrodeposited Copper Metallization. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 6, Issue. 3, p. C33.
Barmak, K. Gungor, A. Cabral, C. and Harper, J. M. E. 2003. Annealing behavior of Cu and dilute Cu-alloy films: Precipitation, grain growth, and resistivity. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94, Issue. 3, p. 1605.
Paik, Jong-Min Park, Ki-Chul and Joo, Young-Chang 2004. Relationship between grain structures and texture of damascene Cu lines. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 48.
Vas'ko, V.A Tabakovic, I Riemer, S.C and Kief, M.T 2004. Effect of organic additives on structure, resistivity, and room-temperature recrystallization of electrodeposited copper. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 75, Issue. 1, p. 71.
Ahmed, S. Buckley, D.N. Nakahara, S. and Kuo, Y. 2005. Effect of Temperature on Incubation Time for Spontaneous Morphology Change in Electrodeposited Copper Metallization. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 863, Issue. ,
Ahmed, S. Buckley, D. N. Nakahara, S. Ahmed, T. T. and Kuo, Y. 2007. An Isothermal Annealing Study of Spontaneous Morphology Change in Electrodeposited Copper Metallization. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 154, Issue. 3, p. D103.
Shinde, Prashant P. Adiga, Shashishekar P. Pandian, Shanthi Mayya, K. Subramanya Shin, Hyeon-Jin and Park, Seongjun 2019. Effect of encapsulation on electronic transport properties of nanoscale Cu(111) films. Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,
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The transition from Al to Cu for advanced ULSI interconnects involves changes in architecture and deposition technique that will influence the microstructure and texture of the metal. Cu interconnects are typically formed within the confines of pre-patterned trenches and vias using an electroplating process with a sputtered Cu conduction layer deposited over a refractory metalbased diffusion barrier layer. In this paper, we focus on the influence of the barrier layer (PVD Ti/TiN, Ta, TaN, CVD TiN) and the effect of a vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer depositions, on the texture of the Cu lines, as examined by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis.
A preferred (111) orientation was observed for all samples. The samples with no vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer deposition exhibited in plane anisotropy that was particularly pronounced for the Ta and TaN samples compared with the Ti/TiN sample. Focused ion beam images and transmission electron micrographs showed Cu grain size to be on the order of the trench width with a high degree of twinning, and no boundary could be distinguished between the PVD Cu conduction layer and the electroplated Cu.
Hide All1. Edelstein, D., Heidenreich, J., Goldblatt, R., Cote, W., Uzoh, C., Lustig, N., Roper, P., McDevitt, T., Motsiff, W., Simon, A., Dukovic, J., Wachnik, R., Rathore, H., Schulz, R., Su, L., Luce, S. and Slattery, J., IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Digest, 773 (1997).2. Hsu, W.-Y., Hong, Q.-Z., Chen, L.-Y., Lu, Y.-C., Wilson, A., Cordasco, V., Jain, M., Tao, R., Luttmer, J.D., Havemann, R.H., Mosely, R., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 413–419.3. Gross, M.E., Siegrist, T., Marcus, M.A., Lai, W.Y.C., Ritzdorf, T., Turner, J., Gibbons, K., Biberger, M., Klawuhn, E., presented at Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 Conference (Oct. 1997, San Diego, CA) and unpublished results.4. Ueno, K., Tsuchiya, Y., Itoh, N., Kikkawa, T., and Sekiguchi, A., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 489–494.5. Schulz, S.E., Baumann, J., Weidner, J.-O., Hasse, W., Koerner, H., and Gessner, T., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 427–435.6. Lingk, C. and Gross, M.E., submitted for publication.
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