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Microstructure and Texture of Electroplated Copper in Damascene Structures

  • M. E. Gross (a1), C. Lingk (a1), T. Siegrist (a1), E. Coleman (a1), W. L. Brown (a1), K. Ueno (a2), Y. Tsuchiya (a2), N. Itoh (a2), T. Ritzdorf (a3), J. Turner (a3), K. Gibbons (a3), E. Klawuhn (a4), M. Biberger (a4), W. Y. C. Lai (a1), J. F. Miner (a1), G. Wu (a5) and F. Zhang (a5)...

Abstract

The transition from Al to Cu for advanced ULSI interconnects involves changes in architecture and deposition technique that will influence the microstructure and texture of the metal. Cu interconnects are typically formed within the confines of pre-patterned trenches and vias using an electroplating process with a sputtered Cu conduction layer deposited over a refractory metalbased diffusion barrier layer. In this paper, we focus on the influence of the barrier layer (PVD Ti/TiN, Ta, TaN, CVD TiN) and the effect of a vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer depositions, on the texture of the Cu lines, as examined by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis.

A preferred (111) orientation was observed for all samples. The samples with no vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer deposition exhibited in plane anisotropy that was particularly pronounced for the Ta and TaN samples compared with the Ti/TiN sample. Focused ion beam images and transmission electron micrographs showed Cu grain size to be on the order of the trench width with a high degree of twinning, and no boundary could be distinguished between the PVD Cu conduction layer and the electroplated Cu.

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1. Edelstein, D., Heidenreich, J., Goldblatt, R., Cote, W., Uzoh, C., Lustig, N., Roper, P., McDevitt, T., Motsiff, W., Simon, A., Dukovic, J., Wachnik, R., Rathore, H., Schulz, R., Su, L., Luce, S. and Slattery, J., IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Digest, 773 (1997).
2. Hsu, W.-Y., Hong, Q.-Z., Chen, L.-Y., Lu, Y.-C., Wilson, A., Cordasco, V., Jain, M., Tao, R., Luttmer, J.D., Havemann, R.H., Mosely, R., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 413419.
3. Gross, M.E., Siegrist, T., Marcus, M.A., Lai, W.Y.C., Ritzdorf, T., Turner, J., Gibbons, K., Biberger, M., Klawuhn, E., presented at Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 Conference (Oct. 1997, San Diego, CA) and unpublished results.
4. Ueno, K., Tsuchiya, Y., Itoh, N., Kikkawa, T., and Sekiguchi, A., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 489494.
5. Schulz, S.E., Baumann, J., Weidner, J.-O., Hasse, W., Koerner, H., and Gessner, T., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 427435.
6. Lingk, C. and Gross, M.E., submitted for publication.

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