Zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method have been studied using photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Lithium acceptors were diffused into the crystals during anneals in LiF powder at temperatures in the 750 to 850°C range. After a lithium diffusion, EPR was used to monitor neutral lithium acceptors and neutral shallow donors, as well as Ni3+, Fe3+, and Cu2+ impurities unintentionally present. Excitonic and deep-level PL emissions were also monitored before and after these diffusions. Two broad overlapping TL emission bands were observed at 117 and 145 K when a Li-diffused crystal was illuminated at 77 K with 325-nm light and then rapidly warmed to room temperature. The two TL bands have the same spectral dependence (the peak in wavelength is 540 nm when the intensity of the light reaches a maximum). These “glow” peaks occur when electrons are thermally released from Ni2+ and Fe2+ ions and recombine with holes at neutral lithium acceptors.