Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Leaching Behavior of Fossil Fuel Wastes: Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Calcium

  • Dhanpat Rai (a1), L. E. Eary (a1), S. V. Mattigod (a1), C. C. Ainsworth (a1) and J. M. Zachara (a1)...

Abstract

A literature review [1] of the leaching behavior of inorganic constituents contained in fossil fuel wastes indicated that most of the available information deals primarily with (1) determination of the elemental composition of different wastes, (2) examination of the physical characteristics of waste solids, and (3) empirical leaching studies involving different solutions and procedures (e.g., water, acids, extraction procedure, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure). A comprehensive mechanistic approach and data are needed to predict accurately the composition of pore waters from fossil fuel wastes. An approach that relates the aqueous concentrations in leachates to solubility-controlling or adsorption-controlling solid phases- in the wastes is described. The behavior of calcium is used as an example to show the relevance of existing data to predicting leachate composition and to identify the type of data needed. The application of this approach to pore waters from flue gas desulfurization sludge shows that Ca concentrations can be accurately predicted from the nature of the Ca solids present and the thermo-chemical data descriptive of precipitation/dissolution and complexation reactions.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Rai, D., Ainsworth, C. C., Eary, L. E., Mattigod, S. V. and Jackson, D. R., Inorganic and Organic Constituents and Their Geochemical Behavior in Fossil Fuel Wastes: A Critical Review, Volume 1 of EPRI EA-(draft report) (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 1986).
2. Ainsworth, C. C., Rai, Dhanpat and Garland, T. R., EPRI EA-(in preparation).
3. Valkovic, V., Trace Elements in Coal (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1983).
4. Adriano, D. C., Page, A. L., Elseewi, A. A., Chang, A. C. and Straughan, I., J. Environ. Qual. 9, 333344 (1980).
5. Suloway, J. J., Skelly, T. M., Roy, W. R., Dickerson, D. R., Schuller, R. M. and Griffin, R. A., Chemical and Toxicological Properties of Coal Fly Ash, Environmental Geology Notes 105 (Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Champaign, 1983).
6. Roy, W. R., Thiery, R. G., Schuller, R. M. and Suloway, J. J., Coal Fly Ash: A Review of the Literature and Proposed Classification System with Emphasis on Environmental Impacts, Environmental Geology Notes 96 (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, 1981).
7. Dahlberg, M. D., Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 175177 (1983).
8. Gladney, E. S., Wangen, L. E., Curtis, D. B. and Jurney, E. T., Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 10841085 (1978).
9. Holland, W. F., Wilde, K. A., Parr, J. L., Lowell, P. S. and Pohler, R. F., The Environmental Effects of Trace Elements in the Pond Disposal of Ash and Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge, EPRI 202 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 1975).
10. Kaakinen, J. W., Jorden, R. M., Lawasani, M. H. and West, R. E., Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 862869 (1975).
11. Klein, D. H., Andren, A. W., Carter, J. A., Emery, J. F., Feldman, C., Fulkerson, W., Lyon, W. S., Ogle, J. C., Talmi, Y., Van Hook, R. I. and Bolton, N., Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 973979 (1975).
12. Kopsick, D. A. and Angino, E. E., J. Hydrol. 54, 341356 (1981).
13. Liskowitz, J. W., Grow, J., Sheih, M., Trattner, R., Kohut, J. and Zwillenberg, M., Sorbate Characteristics of Fly Ash (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, 1983).
14. Small, J. A., PhD thesis, University of Maryland, 1976.
15. Terman, G. L., Solid Wastes from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Use or Disposal on Agricultural Lands, Bulletin Y-129 (National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, 1978).
16. Summers, K. V., Rupp, G. L. and Gherini, S. A., Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Utility Solid Wastes, EPRI EA-3236 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 1983).
17. Kuryk, B. A., Bodek, I. and Santhanam, C. J., Leaching Studies on Utility Solid Wastes: Feasibility Experiments, EA-4215 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 1985).
18. Stinespring, C. D., Harris, W. R., Cook, J. M. and Casleton, K. H., Appl. Spectroscopy 39, 853856 (1985).
19. Giavarini, C., Fuel 61, 549552 (1982).
20. Burriesci, N., Corigliano, F., Primerano, P., Zipelli, C. and Petrera, M., J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 80, 17771785 (1984).
21. Henry, W. M. and Knapp, K. T., Environ. Sci. Technol. 14, 450456 (1980).
22. Smith, R. D., Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 6, 59119 (1980).
23. Lindsay, W. L., Chemical Equilibria in Soils (Wiley, New York, 1979).
24. Jackson, M. L., in Chemistry of the Soil, edited by Bear, F. E., 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1964), pp. 71141.
25. Krauskopf, K. B., Introduction to Geochemistry (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).
26. Mason, B., Principles of Geochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1966).
27. Finkleman, R. B., PhD thesis, University of Maryland, 1980.
28. Hansen, L. D. and Fisher, G. L., Environ. Sci. Technol. 14, 11111117 (1980).
29. Block, C. and Dams, R., Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 10111017 (1976).
30. Campbell, J. A., Laul, J. C., Nielson, K. K. and Smith, R. D., Anal. Chem. 50, 10321040 (1978).
31. Coles, D. G., Ragaini, R. C., Ondov, J. M., Fisher, G. L., Silberman, D. and Prentice, B. A., Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 455459 (1979).
32. Davison, R. L., Natusch, D. F. S., Wallace, J. R. and Evans, C. A. Jr., Environ. Sci. Technol. 8, 11071113 (1974).
33. Natusch, D. F. S., Wallace, J. R. and Evans, C. A., Science 183, 202204 (1974).
34. Smith, R. D., Campbell, J. A. and Nielson, K. K., Fuel 59, 661665 (1980).
35. Smith, R. D., Campbell, J. A. and Nielson, K. K., Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 553558 (1979).
36. Warren, C. J. and Dudas, M. J., J. Environ. Qual. 13, 530538 (1984).
37. Bauer, C. F. and Natusch, D. F. S., Environ. Sci. Technol. 15, 783788 (1981).
38. Luke, W. I., Nature and Distribution of Particles of Various Sizes in Fly Ash, Technical Report No. 6–583 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1961).
39. Brzakovic, P. N., in Ash Utilization: Proceedings of the Second Ash Utilization Symposium, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8488 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970), pp. 205–219.
40. Harvey, R. D., Petrographic and Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rocks Related to Sulfur Dioxide Sorption in Flue Gases, NTIS Pb-206–487 (Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, 1971).
41. Plank, C. O., PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1974.
42. Page, A. L., Elseewi, A. A. and Straughan, I. R., Residue Reviews 71, 83120 (1979).
43. Talbot, R. W., Anderson, M. A. and Andren, A. W., Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 10561062 (1978).
44. Warren, C. J. and Dudas, M. J., J. Environ. Qual. 14, 405410 (1985).
45. Liem, H., Sandstroem, M., Wallin, T., Carne, A., Rydevik, U., Thurenius, B. and Moberg, P.O., in International Conference on Coal Fired Power Plants and the Aquatic Environment, CONF-8208123 (Water Quality Institute, Hoersholm, Denmark, 1982), pp. 338–366.
46. Raask, E., J. Inst. Energy, June 1980, 70–75.
47. Simons, H. S. and Jeffery, J. W., J. Appl. Chem. 10, 328336 (1960).
48. Manz, O. E., in Technology and Use of Lignite, Proceedings of a Bureau of Mines and University of North Dakota Symposium, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8650 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1974), pp. 204–219.
49. Styron, R. W., in Ash Utilization: Proceedings of the Second Ash Utilization Symposium, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8488 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970), pp. 151–164.
50. Natusch, D. F. S., Bauer, C. F., Matusiewicz, H., Evans, C. A., Baker, J., Loh, A., Linton, R. W. and Hopke, P. K., in International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment; Symposium Proceedings Volume II, Part 2 (Toronto, 1975), pp. 553–575.
51. Scheetz, B. E. and White, W. B., in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterization, Utilization and Disposal I, edited by McCarthy, G. J. and Lauf, R. J., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol.43 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1985), pp. 5360.
52. Groenewold, G. H. and Manz, O. E., Disposal of Fly Ash and Fly Ash Alkali FGD Waste in a Western Decoaled Strip Mine – Interim Report (Engineering Experiment Station, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1982).
53. Humenick, M. J., Lang, M. and Jackson, K. F., J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 310316 (1983).
54. Kokubu, M., in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, Vol.4: Admixtures and Special Cements (Cement Association of Japan, Tokyo, 1969), pp. 75–113.
55. McCarthy, G. J., Swanson, K. D., Schields, P. J. and Groenewold, G. H., Mineralogical Controls on Toxic Element Contamination of Groundwater from Buried Electrical Utility Solid Wastes. 1. Solid Waste Mineralogy. 2. Literature Review of Fly Ash Mineralogy, PB-83-265116 (North Dakota State University, Fargo, 1983).
56. Mattigod, S. V. and Ervin, J. O., Fuel 62, 927931 (1983).
57. Roy, W. R. and Griffin, R. A., Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 739742 (1984).
58. Theis, T. L., Halvorsen, M., Levine, A., Stankunas, A. and Unites, D., in Report and Technical Studies on the Disposal and Utilization of Fossil Fuel Combustion By-Products, submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982.
59. Biggs, D. L. and Bruns, J. J., in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: CharacterizationI Utilization and Disposal I, edited by McCarthy, G. J. and Lauf, R. J., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol.43(Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1985), pp. 2129.
60. Rehsi, S. S., in Ash Utilization: Third International Symposium, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8640 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 231245.
61. Malek, R. A. I. and Roy, D. M., in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products: Characterizationt Utilization and Disposal I, edited by McCarthy, G. J. and Lauf, R. J., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol.43(Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1985), pp. 4150.
62. Mattigod, S. V., Scanning. Electron Microscopy II, 611617 (1982).
63. Roy, D. M., Luke, K. and Diamond, S., in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By- Products: Characterization Utilization and Disposal I, edited by McCarthy, G. J. and Lauf, R. J., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol.43(Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1985), pp. 320.
64. Mattigod, S. V., Environ. Technol. Lett. 7, 485490 (1983).
65. Selmeczi, J. G. and Knight, R. G., in Ash Utilization: Third International Symposium, Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 8640 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 123138.
66. Green, J. B. and Manahan, S. E., Anal. Chem. 50, 19751980 (1978).
67. Dreesen, D. R., Wangen, L. E., Gladney, E. S. and Owens, J. W., in Environmental Chemistry and Cycling Processes, edited by Adrioni, D. C. and Brisbin, I. L., CONF-760429 (National Technical Information Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1976), pp. 240252.
68. Elseewi, A. A., Page, A. L. and Grimm, S. R., J. Environ. Qual. 9, 424428 (1980).
69. Harris, W. R. and Silberman, D., Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 139145 (1983).
70. Linton, R. W., Williams, P., Evans, C. A. Jr., and Natusch, D. F. S., Anal. Chem. 49, 15141520 (1977).
71. Roy, W. R., Griffin, R. A., Dickerson, D. R. and Schuller, R. M., Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 734739 (1984).
72. Cherkauer, D. S., Ground Water 18, 544550 (1980).
73. Wagman, D. P., Evans, W. H., Parker, V. B., Schumm, R. H., Halow, I., Bailey, S. M., Churney, K. L. and Nuttall, R. L., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 11, Supplement 2 (American Chemical Society and the American Institute for Physics, New York, 1982).
74. Smith, R. M. and Martell, A. E., Critical Stability Constants. Volume 4: Inorganic Complexes (Plenum, New York, 1976).
75. Felmy, A. R., Girvin, D. C. and Jenne, E. A., MINTEQ ndash; A Computer Program for Calculating Aqueous Geochemical Equilibria, EPA 600-3-84-032 (U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Athens, Georgia, 1984).

Leaching Behavior of Fossil Fuel Wastes: Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Calcium

  • Dhanpat Rai (a1), L. E. Eary (a1), S. V. Mattigod (a1), C. C. Ainsworth (a1) and J. M. Zachara (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed