Skip to main content Accessibility help

Ion Beam Induced Graphitization of Phenolformaldehyde

  • D. Ila (a1), A. L. Evelyn (a1) and G. M. Jenkins (a1)


We have studied MeV ion beam induced phase transformation in phenolformaldehyde cured at 170°C by both Raman Microprobe spectroscopy and in situ resistance measurement of the irradiated area. Samples were irradiated using various doses of protons, alphas and nitrogen beams. Irradiated volumes in each sample were tested in situ for enhanced electrical conductivity and later on by Raman Microprobe spectroscopy. The results have shown changes in the resistance as much as seven orders of magnitude by alpha particles, six orders by nitrogen bombardment and three orders by hydrogen. Raman Microprobe spectroscopy of the darkened phase shows development of the D- and G-lines which are characteristic of the production of a carbonized resin. These spectra indicate that maximum carbonization was caused by the nitrogen beam.



Hide All
1. Dresselhaus, M. S., Wasserman, B. and Wnek, G. E. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 27, Elsevier Science Pub., New York) pp. 413.
2. Calcagno, L. and Foti, G., Nucl. Instr. Methods B59/60, 1153 (1991).
3. Wang, Y., Nohite, S. S., Bridewell, L. B., Giedd, R. E. and Schofield, C. J., J. Mater. Res. 8, 388 (1993).
4. Sofield, C. J., Bedell, C. J., Graves, P. R. and Bridwell, L. B., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 67, 432 (1992).
5. Venkatesan, T., Levi, R. P., Banwell, T. C., Tomberello, T. A., Nicolet, M-A., Hamm, R. and Meixner, A. E. (Mater. Res. Sop. Proc. 45, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985) pp. 189.
6. Döbeli, M., Jones, T. J., Lee, A., Levi, R. P. and Tombrello, T. A., Rad. Eff. Defects Solids 118, 325 (1991).
7. Jeoung, H-S. and White, R. C., in Phase Formation and modification by Beam-Solid Interactions, edited by Was, G. S., Renn, L.E. and Follstaedt, D. M. (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 235, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991) pp. 787792.
8. Jenkins, G. M. and Kawamura, K., Polymeric Carbons-Carbon Fibre, Glass and Char (Cambridge University Press, 1976).
9. Ziegler, J. F., Biersack, J. P. and Littmark, U., The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
10. Vidan, R. and Fischbach, D. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61, 13 (1978).
11. McCulloch, D. and Prawer, S. in Beam-Solid Interactions: Physical Phenomena, edited by Knapp, J. A., Børgesen, P. and Zuhr, R. A. (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 257, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990) pp. 825830.
12. Jenkins, G. M., Ila, D. and Williams, E. K. in Polymer/Inorganic Interfaces, edited by Opila, R. L., Boerio, F. J. and Czanderna, A. W. (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 304, Pittsburgh, PA, 1993) pp. 173177.

Ion Beam Induced Graphitization of Phenolformaldehyde

  • D. Ila (a1), A. L. Evelyn (a1) and G. M. Jenkins (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed