ABSTRACT:L: NiO surfaces have been the subject of numerous investigations using a wide variety of techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The findings, however, remain inconclusive regarding the relative contributions of irradiation effects such as ballistic erosion, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) and electron-stimulated reaction (ESR), especially at incident electron energies exceeding 100 keV. In earlier studies it was suggested that the surface environment played a significant role in the radiation damage process. In this study, the effect of the surface environment is further illustrated by in-situ experiments in controlled sample environments. NiO surfaces were irradiated with electrons, ranging in energy from 3 keV to 300 keV, and examined in-situ under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions (10−10 Torr), as well as in controlled oxidizing (oxygen) and reducing (CO) atmospheres. The nature of the surface reactions and their contribution to the overall radiation damage process in the various energy regimes is examined.