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Influence of deposition chamber pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of fluorescent blue and phosphorescent red OLED deposited by OVPD

  • Philipp van Gemmern (a1), Christoph Zimmermann (a1), Phenwisa Niyamakom (a2), Matthias Wuttig (a2), Sabine Brand (a3), Holger Schwab (a3), Heinrich Becker (a4), Rocco Fortte (a4), Michael Heuken (a1) (a5), Holger Kalisch (a1) and Rolf H. Jansen (a1)...

Abstract

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) offer the potential to replace conventional light sources such as incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes. The question which thin-film technology is most favorable to produce OLED on an industrial scale is still unanswered. The most established technology for the deposition of small-molecule organic layers is vacuum thermal evaporation. A comparably novel technology is organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), which offers some unique features in terms of adjustable process parameters such as deposition chamber pressure (P) and substrate temperature (T S ). The impact of these parameters on the morphology of organic single layers as well as on the performance of OLED is mostly unknown. In this work, phosphorescent red OLED were produced with different T S and a strong influence on the device efficiency was found. Atomic force microscopy measurements were conducted to investigate the morphology of the hole injection and hole transport layers of the devices deposited at different T S . In addition to this, the influence of TS and P on the performance of fluorescent blue OLED and the morphology of organic single layers was tested. By varying TS and P for the emission layer only, current efficiencies in the range from 4.3 to 6.8 cd/A were found despite the fact that all devices had the same structure. Atomic force microscopy measurements conducted on organic single layers which were deposited at the same process conditions showed rms values ranging from 1.4 to 57 nm.

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References

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1. Yang, Fan, Shtein, Max, and Forrest, Stephen R., Nature Materials 4, 37 (2005).
2. Shtein, Max, Mapel, Jonathan, Benziger, Jay B., and Forrest, Stephen R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 268 (2002).
3. Shtein, Max, Gossenberger, Herman F., Benziger, Jay B., and Forrest, Stephen R., J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1470 (2001).

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