The microstructure of polysilicon and Si0.69Ge0.31 thin films, grown by chemical-vapordeposition (CVD) on oxidized silicon wafers covered with a very thin polysilicon seed layer, was investigated using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The plan-view HREM images showed that polysilicon films contained less substructure inside grains and had fewer multiple twins and more extended twin bands than Si0.69Ge0.31. On the other hand, only SiGe contained multiple twins with five-fold symmetry. The atomic model of the second-order symmetric twin boundary proposed for Si and based on the insertion of five-member and seven-membered rings was found to describe the atomic structures of second-order symmetric twin boundaries in Si0.69Ge0.31 as well. Within the accuracy of HREM, the repeat unit of the boundary was the same in Si0.69Ge0.31 and Si.