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High Concentration Erbium Implantation of Epitaxially Grown Caf2 /Si Structures.

  • S. Raoux (a1) (a2), A. S. Barriere (a3), H. J. Lozykowski (a4) and I. G. Brown (a1)


Calcium fluoride thin films grown on silicon substrates by sublimation under ultra high vacuum are well known to be highly efficient hosts for rare earth luminescence properties. For this reason we incorporate erbium by ion implantation in order to form optoelectronic integrated devices. Here we describe the incorporation conditions of erbium in CaF2/Si structures and their luminescence characteristics. The properties of the material have been investigated for implantation doses varying from 4×1014 to 1×1017−2. The role of oxygen in the charge compensation mechanisms is investigated and it is shown that the maximum emission in erbium at 1.53μm occurs for an implanted dose of 2×1016−2. This corresponds to an Er concentration three orders of magnitude greater than for the case of classical-erbium-doped semiconductors. At this high concentration (up to 15 at.%) the light emission mechanisms are of great theoretical interest. They involve strong Er-Er coupling effects: energy transfer, cross-relaxation phenomena and high conversion efficiencies.

These properties make erbium-implanted CaF2/Si structures excellent candidates for the production of optically active waveguides. The guiding structure can be formed by high energy implantation to build a buried active region of high refractive index within the CaF2 thin film.



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