Skip to main content Accessibility help

Heteroepitaxy on Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

  • Leo J. Schowalter (a1)


In recent years extensive research has been conducted on growing heteroepitaxial layers of insulators, metals, and other semiconductors on silicon. This work promises to extend the use of Si (or, at least, Si substrates) far beyond present day devices into hybred semiconductor devices, optoelectronics, ballistic electron devices, and three-dimensional device structures. However, the “art” of heteroepitaxy is still poorly understood and much work remains to be done to realize most practical applications. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) represents an attractive technique for research and development of heteroepitaxy because of its relatively low growth temperatures, flexibility in working with different materials, and by providing a good environment for in-situ observation of the heteroepitaxial process. Using examples from recent heteroepitaxial work by molecular beam epitaxy in the areas of CaF2, NiSi2 and CoSi2, and GaAs on Si, this paper discusses how heteroepitaxial quality is affected by the relative surface free energies and strain (due to both lattice and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch). The goal is to produce better heteroepitaxial layers for device applications by an improved understanding of the process.



Hide All
1 Capasso, F., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B1, 457 (1983).
2 For example, see Mimura, T., Joshin, K., Hiyamizu, S., Hikosaka, K. and Abe, M., Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L598 (1981).
3 For example, see Hensel, J.C., Levi, A.F.J., Tung, R.T., and Gibson, J.M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 151 (1985).
4 For example see, Heiblum, M., Solid-State Electron. 24, 343 (1981).
5 Shaw, D.W. in Heteroepitaxy on Silicon II, edited by Fan, J.C.C., Phillips, J.M., and Tsaur, B.-Y. (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 91, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) pp. 1530.
6 Schowalter, L.J. and Fathauer, R.W., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 1026 (1986).
7 Olmstead, M.A., Uhrberg, R.I.G., Bringans, R.D., and Bachrach, R.Z., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1123 (1986).
8 Duh, K.H.G., Chao, P.C., Smith, P.M., Lester, L.F., Lee, B.R., and Hwang, J.C.M., Millimeter-Wave Low-Noise HEMT's, Device Research Conf., Amherst, MA, June 1986, Paper IIA-2.
9 Pearsall, T.P., Bean, J.C., People, R., and Fiory, A.T., Proc. 1” Int.'l Smp. Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy, edited by Bean, J.C. (Electrochemical Soc., Pennington, NJ 1985) pp. 400405.
10 See, for example, The Technology of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, edited by Parker, E. H. C. (Plenum Press, New York, 1985).
11 See Bean, J. C., in Heteroepitaxy on Silicon II, edited by Fan, J.C.C., Phillips, J.M., and Tsaur, B.-Y. (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 91, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) p. 269; and references therein.
12 See Lee, J. W., Salerno, J. P., Gale, R. P., and Fan, J. C. C. in Heteroepitaxv on Si II, loc. cit., p. 33.
13 Zogg, H. and Blunier, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1531 (1986).
14 Zogg, H., and Norton, P., Techn. Dnigest Int'l Electron Devices Meeting IEDM, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1985; p. 121.
15 See Schowalter, L. J. and Fathauer, R. W., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 1026 (1986); and references therein.
16 Sinharoy, S., Hoffman, R. H., Farrow, R.F.C., and Rieger, J. H., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 2323 (1985).
17 Kado, Y. and Arita, Y., J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2398 (1987).
18 Tang, R. T., Levi, A. F. J., and Gibson, J. M., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1435 (1986).
18 See, for example, Ishiwara, H., Hikosaka, K., and Furukawa, S., J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5302 (1979).
20 See, for example, Ishiwara, H., Hikosaka, K., Nagatomo, M., and Furukawa, S., Surface Sci. 86, 711 (1979).
21 Park, K.-H., Jin, H.-S., Wang, G.-C., Lu, T.-M., Luo, L. and Gibson, W. M., to be publ. in (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 102 Pittsburgh, PA 1988).
22 Chu, A. Y. in The Technology and. Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, loc. cit., pp. 113.
23 Ishizaka, A., Nakagawa, K., and Shiraki, Y., Collected Papers of MBE-CST-2, 1982, Tokyo (Japanese Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1982), p. 183.
24 Chrenko, R. M., Hall, E. L., Lewis, N., and Smith, G. A. in Characterization of Defects in Materials, edited by Siegel, R. W., Sinclair, R., and Weertman, J. R. (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 82, Pittsburgh, PA 1987) pp. 373378.
25 Kubiak, R. A. A., Leong, W. Y., Houghton, R., and Parker, E. H. C. in Proc. 1s Int.'l Svmp. Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxv, edited by Bean, J. C. (Electrochemical Soc. Pennington, NJ 1985) pp. 124131.
26 Bellavance, D. and Liu, J., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 751 (1987).
27 For example, the new model V90S from VG Semicon, Ltd. is being designed to address this problem.
28 Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M., Statistical Physics, 3rd edition, revised and enlarged by Lifshitz, E. M. and Pitaevskii, L. P. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980), p. 517.
29 Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M., Theory of Elasticity, (London, Pergamon Press, 1959).
30 Schowalter, L. J., Fathauer, R. W., Goehner, R. P., Turner, L. G., DeBlois, R. W., Hashimoto, S., Peng, J.-L., Gibson, W. M., and Krusius, J. P., J. Appl. Phys. 58, 302 (1985).
31 Mathews, J. W. in Materials Science Series: Epitaxial Growth, Part B, edited by Matthews, J. W. (Academic Press, New York, 1975), p. 559.
32 Hall, E. L., Lewis, N., Fathauer, R. W., Schowalter, L. J., and Mogro-Campero, A. in Intermediate Voltage Microscopy and its Application to Materials Science, edited by Rajan, K., (Philips, Mahwah, NJ, 1987) pp. 110125.
33 Gilman, J. J., J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2208 (1960).
34 Ishibashi, K. and Furukawa, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 912 (1985).
35 Hunt, B. D., Lewis, N., Schowalter, L. J., Hall, E. L., and Turner, L. G. in Interfaces, Superlattices, and Thin Films, edited by Dow, J. D. and Schuller, I. K. (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 77, Pittsburgh, PA, 1987), 351356.
36 Tung, R.T., Levi, A.F.J., and Gibson, J.M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 635 (1986).
37 Hunt, B.D., Lewis, N., Hall, E.L., and Robertson, C.D., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B5, 749 (1987).
38 Lin, T.L., Fathauer, R.W., Grunthaner, P.J., and d'Anterroches, C., Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 804 (1988).
39 Tung, R.T. and Hellman, F., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 94, 65 (1987).
40 Tung, R.T. and Batstone, J.L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 648 (1988).
41 Hashimoto, S., Peng, J.-L., Gibson, W. M., Schowalter, L. J., and Fathauer, R. W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1071 (1985).
42 Schowalter, L.J., Fathauer, R.W., Ponce, F.A., Anderson, G., and Hashimoto, S., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 67, 125 (1986).
43 Hashimoto, S., Schowalter, L.J., Smith, G.A., Lee, E.Y., Gibson, W.M. and Claxton, P.A., this volume.
44 Matyi, R.J., Lee, J.W., and Schaake, H.F., J. Electronic Materials 17, 87 (1988).
45 Schowalter, L.J., Hashimoto, S., Smith, G.A., Gibson, W.M., Lewis, N., Hall, E.L., and Sullivan, P.W. to be publ. in Epitaxy of Semiconductor Layered Structures, edited by Tung, R.T., Dawson, L.R., and Gunshor, R.L., (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. xxx, Pittsburgh, PA, 1988).
46 Harris, J.S. Jr., Koch, S.M., and Rosner, S.J. in Heteroepitaxy on Silicon II, loc. cit., pp. 314.
47 Chrenko, R.M., Schowalter, L.J., Hall, E.L., and Lewis, N. in Layered Structures and Epitaxy, edited by Gibson, J.M., Osbourn, G.C., and Tromp, R.M., (Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 56, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), pp. 2732.

Heteroepitaxy on Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

  • Leo J. Schowalter (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed