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Environmental Monitoring and Damage Assessment at the Ancient Sanctuary of Demeter In Eleusis, Greece

  • Antonia I. Moropoulou (a1) and K. G. Bisbikou (a1)

Abstract

In the present work, the main decay phenomena of the various lithotypes of the ancient Sanctuary of Demeter (1600BC) in Eleusis-Greece are studied in respect of the environmental factors under monitoring, concerning an area characterised by a heavy industrial pollution in an intense marine environment.

Stone surface alterations are studied by examining the various neoformations. Specific investigation has been performed on the depositions of the total suspended particles, mainly characterising the polluted atmosphere in the Thriassian plain, as possible weathering causes. OM, SEM, EDX and XRD analysis are employed consequently.

Decay phenomena like crust formations (gypsum, loose depositions of soot and suspended particles, at the more or less sheltered areas), various cementitious encrustations on the marble surfaces, especially the horizontal ones, or Fe-rich yellow patinas on the washed out surfaces are evidenced.

These weathering phenomena might be attributed to pollutants, suspended particles and their wet and dry depositions, which are measured according to the analysis performed.

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[1] Preka-Alexandri, K., “Eleusis”, Ministry of Culture, Archaelogical Receipts Fund, Athens, 1991
[2] Abazoglou, G., Christidis, A., Mourikis, D.: “The dust fall at the Thriasian plain”, Panhellenic Society of Chemical Engineers, 7/8, March/April, 1990
[3] Zezza, F., “Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as factors of damage to monuments in the Mediterranean coastal environment”, 3rd Symposium on Methodologies for the Analysis of Weathering and Conservation, Venice, June 1994
[4] Moropoulou, A., Zezza, F., Aires Baros, L., Christaras, B., Fassina, V., Fitzner, B., Fournaraki-Kassoli, A., Galan, E., Van Grieken, R., “Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as factors of damage to monument in the Mediterranean coastal environment - a preliminary approach to the case of Demeter Sanctuary in Eleusis” 3rd Symposium on Methodologies for the Analysis of Weathering and Conservation, Venice, June 1994
[5] Moropoulou, A.: “Environmental management as a new conservation strategy”, Second International Course on Monument Conservation “Stone Material in monuments: diagnosis and conservation” organized by CUM University School “Monument Conservation”, May, Crete 1993
[6]-[7] NTU-A Semestral Report No 1, No 2 Moropoulou, A., Bisbikou, K., Theodoraki, A., “Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as factors of damage to monuments in the Mediterranean coastal environment”, R&D Programme in the field of environment, EEC - CUM Contract No EV5V - CT92 - 0102, Coordinator Skoulikidis, Th., June 1993, December 1993
[8] Skoulikidis, Th., Charalambous, D., “Mechanism of Sulphation by Atmospheric SO2of the Limestone and Marble of Ancient Monuments and Statues”, II. Hypothesis concerning the rate determining step in the process of sulphation, and its experimental confirmation, Br. Corros. J., Vol. 16, No. 2, 1981

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Environmental Monitoring and Damage Assessment at the Ancient Sanctuary of Demeter In Eleusis, Greece

  • Antonia I. Moropoulou (a1) and K. G. Bisbikou (a1)

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