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Elastic-Recoil-Detection Measurement of Instabilities in Proton-Exchanged Lithium Niobate

  • G. W. Arnold (a1), A. Carnera (a1), G. Mazzi (a2) and P. Mazzoldi (a2)


The H and Li profiles in proton-exchanged (PE) LiNbO3, have been measured using elastic recoil detection (ERD). Profiles were determined as a function of crystal orientation, time after PE, annealing temperature, MgO-doping, and added Li-benzoate to the benzoic acid proton source. The proton-exchange process produces Hx Li1−x NbO3 structures where x stabilizes near values of x=0.5 or x=0.7-0.75 depending on specific conditions. The ERD measurements represent the first direct and simultaneous measurements of H- and Li-concentrations in PE LiNbO3 and their variation with process parameters.



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