Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of Process Conditions and Chemical Composition on the Microstructure and Properties of Chemically Vapor Deposited SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnSxSe1-x

  • Michael A. Pickering (a1), Raymond L. Taylor (a1), Jitendra S. Goela (a1) and Hemant D. Desai (a1)

Abstract

Sub-atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have been developed to produce theoretically dense, highly pure, void-free and large area bulk materials, SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnSxSe1-x. These materials are used for optical elements, such as mirrors, lenses and windows, over a wide spectral range from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to the infrared (IR).

In this paper we discuss the effect of CVD process conditions on the microstructure and properties of these materials, with emphasis on optical performance. In addition, we discuss the effect of chemical composition on the properties of the composite material ZnSxSe1-x.

We first present a general overview of the bulk CVD process and the relationship between process conditions, such as temperature, pressure, reactant gas concentration and growth rate, and the microstructure, morphology and properties of CVD-grown materials. Then we discuss specific results for CVDgrown SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnSxSe1-x.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Bryant, W.A., J. Mater. Sci. 12 (1977), 1285.
2. Tsao, J.Y. and Ehrlich, D.J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 (1984), 617.
3. Deutsch, T.F. and Rathman, D.D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 (1984), 623.
4. Baum, T.H. and Jones, C.R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 (1985), 538.
5. Houle, F.A., Jones, C.R., Baum, T., Pico, C. and Kovac, C.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 46 (1985), 538.
6. Lachey, W.J., Stintor, D.P., Cerny, G.A., Schaffhauser, A.C. and Fehrenbacher, L.L., Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2 (1987), 24.
7. Stinton, D.P., Lackey, W.J., Lauf, R.J. and Besmann, T.M., Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 5 (1984), 668.
8. Saraie, J., Kwon, J. and Yodogawa, Y., J. Electrochem. Soc.: Solid-State Sci. Tech. 132 (1985), 890.
9. Cochran, A.A., Stephenson, J.B. and Donaldson, J.G., J. Metals 22 (1970), 37.
10. Nichara, K., Ceram. Bull. 63 (1984), 1160.
11. Hakim, M.J., in “Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on CVD,” edited by Blocher, J.M. Jr., Hinterman, H.E. and Hall, L. (The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, NJ, 1975).
12. Bloem, J. and Giling, L.J., in “Current Topics in Material Science,” Vol.1, edited by Kaldis, E. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 147.
13. Cullen, G.W. and Corboy, J.F., J. Crystallogr. Growth 70 (1984), 230.
14. Srinivasan, G.R., J. Crystallogr. Growth 70 201.
15. Ludowise, M.J., J. Appl. Phys. 58 (1985), R31.
16. Donnelly, V.M., Brasen, D., Appelbaum, A. and Geva, M., J. Appl. Phys. 58 (1985), 2022.
17. Balog, M. and Schieber, M., Thin Solid Films 47 (1977), 109.
18. Schlichting, J., Powder Metall. Int. 12 (1980), 14.
19. Matsuda, T., Uno, N., Nakae, H. and Hirai, T., J. Mater. Sci. 21 (1986), 649.
20. Archer, N.J., in “High Temperatuare Chemistry of Inorganic and Ceramic Materials,” edited by Glassu, F.P. and Potter, P.E., Special Publ. No. 30 (Chemical Society, London, 1976), p. 167.
21. Arizumi, T., in “Current Topics in Material Science,” Vol.1, edited by Kaldis, E. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 343.
22. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., SPIE Proc. 659 (1986), 161.
23. Kruse, P.W., Semiconductors and Semimetals 18 (1981), 1.
24. Debolt, H.E., in “Hardbook of Composites,” edited by Lubin, G. (Van Nostrand Rheinhold, NY, 1982), p. 171.
25. Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L. and Moore, D.T., Applied Optics 25(19) (1986), 3364.
26. Donadio, R., Swanson, A. and Pappis, J., in “Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Infrared Laser Window Materials,” edited by Andrews, C.R. and C.L. Strecher (Air Force Materials Laboratoary, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 1975), p. 494.
27. Yim, Y.M. and Stofko, E.J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 119 (1972), 381.
28. Klein, C.A., diBenedetto, B. and Pappis, J., Opt. Eng. 25(4) (1986), 519.
29. Goela, J.S., Taylor, R.L., Lefebvre, M.J., Price, P.E. Jr. and Smith, M.J., in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Material: 1983,” NBS Special Publ. 688, edited by Bennett, H.E., Guenther, A.H., Milarn, D., Newman, B.E. (National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO, 1983), p. 106.
30. Pickering, M.A. and Taylor, R.L., SPIE Proc. 576 (1985), 16.
31. Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L. and Armirotto, A.L., SPIE Proc. 618 (1986), 110.
32. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., in “Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference,” Honolulu, March 1987, edited by Marto, P.J. and I. Tanasawa (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NY, 1987), p. 623.
33. Tanzilli, R.A. and Gebhardt, J.J., SPIE Proc. 297 (1981), 59.
34. Engdahl, R.E., SPIE Proc. 315 (1981), 123.
35. Pickering, M.A. and Taylor, R.L., in “Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on High Power Laser Optical Components,” 24–25 Oct. 1988, NWC TP-7017 Part 1, Unclassified Papers (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA, 1989), p. 259.
36. Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L., Keeley, J. and Graves, G., Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A291 (1990), 95.
37. Collins, A., Keeley, J., Pickering, M.A. and Taylor, R.L., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 168 (1990), 193.
38. Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L., Keeley, J. T. and Graves, G., SPIE Proc. 1118 (1989) 2.
39. Goela, J.S., Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L., Murray, B.W. and Lompado, A., SPIE Proc. 1330 (1990), 25.
40. Goela, J.S., Pickering, M.A., Taylor, R.L., Murray, B.W. and Lompado, A., Applied Optics 30 (22) (1991), 3166.
41. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., SPIE Proc. 1118 (1989), 14.
42. Rice, R.W., Freiman, S.W. and Becker, P.F., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64(6), 1981, 345.
43. Emmanuel, A. and Pollock, H.M., J. Electrochem. Soc.: Solid State Sci. Tech. 12 (1973), 1586.
44. Wright, P.J., Cockayne, B., Cattell, A.F., Dean, P.J. and Pitt, A.D., J. Crystallogr. Growth 59 (1982), 155.
45. Olsen, L.C., Bohara, R.C. and Barton, D.L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 34 (1979), 528.
46. Besomi, P. and Wessels, B.W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 37 (1980), 955.
47. Wright, P.J. and Cockayne, B., J. Crystallogr. Growth 59 (1982), 148.
48. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987), 928.
49. Stinton, D.P., Lockey, W.J., Lauf, R.J. and Besmann, T.M., Ceram. Engng. Sci. Proc. 5 (1984), 668.
50. Hayaashi, S., Hirai, T., Hiraga, K. and Hira-Bayashi, M., J. Mater. Sci. 17 (1982), 3336.
51. Hirai, T. and Hayashi, S., J. Mater. Sci. 17 (1982), 1320.
52. Berman, R., Proc. Phys. Soc. LXV, 12–A (1982), 1029.
53. Collins, A.K., Pickering, M.A. and Taylor, R.L., J. Appl. Phys. 68(12), (1990), 6510.
54. Singh, S., Potopowicz, J.R., Van Witert, L.G. and Wemple, S.H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 53 (1973).
55. Bloem, J. and Giling, L.J., “Mechanism of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon,” in Current Topics in Material Science Vol.1, ed. Kaldis, E. (North Holland, 1978, p. 147.
56. Anthony, F.M. and Hopkins, A.K., in SPIE Proc., 297 (1981), 196.
57. Maguire, E.A., Dionesotes, N.T. and Gentilman, R.L., Fabrication of Large Mirror Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition (Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Rept. No. AFWAL-TR-86-4128, Raytheon Research Division, Rept. No. RAY/RD/M-4410, December 1986).
58. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., J. Am. Cer. Soc. 72(9), (1989) 1747.
59. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., Appl. Phys. Lett., 54(25), (1989), 2512.
60. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., SPIE Proc., 1062 (1989), 37.
61. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., SPIE Proc., 1047 (1989), 198.
62. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., Polycrystalline Silicon Improved Materials Property Data Base for Cooled Laser Mirrors (Air Force Weight Aeronautical Laboratories, Rept. No. AFWAL-TR-86-4131, CVD Incorporated, Rept. No. TR-031, March 1987).
63. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., Fabrication of Lightweight LIDAR Mirrors (NASA SBIR Phase I Final Report, CVD Incorporated, Technical Rept. No. 9069–1, March 1987).
64. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., J. Mat. Sci. 23 (1988), 4331.
65. Goela, J.S. and Taylor, R.L., “Post Deposition Process for Improving Optical Properties of CVD-Si,” J. Am. Cer. Soc. (to appear).
66. Lipson, H.G., Appl. Opt. 16 (1977), 2902.
67. Stutius, W., J. Electron. Mater. 10(1) (1981), 95.
68. Miceli, J.J., Gradient Index Optics: Materials, Fabrication and Testing (Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester, 1983).

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed