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Effect of Charge-balancing Species on Sm3+ Incorporation in Calcium Vanadinite

  • M. R. Gilbert (a1)


Apatites are often seen as good potential candidates for the immobilization of halide-rich wastes. In particular, phosphate apatites have received much attention in recent years, however, their synthesis often produces complicated multi-phase systems, with a number of secondary phases forming [1.2]. Calcium vanadinite (Ca5(VO4)3Cl) demonstrates a much simpler phase system, with only a single Ca2V2O7 secondary phase which can easily be retarded by the addition of excess CaCl2. However, when doping with SmCl3 (as an inactive analogue for AnCl3) the Sm forms a wakefieldite (SmVO4) phase rather than being immobilized within the vanadinite, a result of having to form an energetically unfavourable Ca vacancy in order for the lattice to remain neutral overall. It has been postulated that charge-balancing the lattice via co-substitution of a monovalent cation will be less disfavoured and therefore help stabilise formation of a (Ca5-2x Sm x A x )(VO4)3Cl solid solution (A = monovalent cation). This has been investigated using a combined modelling and experimental approach. Static lattice calculations performed using Li+, Na+ and K+ as charge-balancing species have shown the energy cost to be less than half that of charge-balancing via formation of a Ca vacancy. As a result, solid state synthesis of (Ca5-2x Sm x Li x )(VO4)3Cl, (Ca5−2x Sm x Na x )(VO4)3Cl and (Ca5-2x Sm x K x )(VO4)3Cl solid solutions have been trialled, and analysis of the resulting products has shown a significant reduction in both the SmVO4 and Ca2V2O7 secondary phases across all dopant levels.



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Effect of Charge-balancing Species on Sm3+ Incorporation in Calcium Vanadinite

  • M. R. Gilbert (a1)


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