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The effect of a high temperature reaction of Cu-In-Ga metallic precursors on the formation of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2

  • Dominik M. Berg (a1), Christopher P. Thompson (a1) and William N. Shafarman (a1)


The influence of higher processing temperatures on the formation reaction of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films using a three step reactive annealing process and on the device performance has been investigated. High process temperatures generally lead to the formation of larger grains, decrease the amount of void formation and their distribution at the back Mo/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 interface, and lead to a much faster formation reaction that shortens the overall reaction process. However, high temperature processing also leads to a decrease in device performance. A loss in open circuit voltage and fill factor could be attributed to enhanced interface recombination processes for the samples fabricated at higher process temperatures, which itself may be caused by a lack of Na and subsequent poor passivation of interface defect states. The lack of Na resulted in a decrease in free charge carrier concentration by two orders of magnitude.



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