- Cited by 26
Yang, Hongning Tweet, Douglas J. Ma, Yanjun and Nguyen, Tue 1998. Deposition of highly crosslinked fluorinated amorphous carbon film and structural evolution during thermal annealing. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 73, Issue. 11, p. 1514.
Yang, Hongning Tweet, Douglas J. Ma, Yanjun Nguyen, Tue Evans, David R. and Hsu, S.-T. 1998. Thermal stability and structural evolution of low-K Fluorinated amorphous carbon during thermal annealing. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 511, Issue. ,
Zhu, W. Pai, C.S. Bair, H.E. Krautter, H.W. Opila, R.L. Dennis, B.S. Pinczuk, A. Chabal, Y.J. Grundmeier, G. Graebner, J.E. Cheung, K.P. Schilling, F.C. Case, C.B. Liu, R. and Jin, S. 1998. Novel co-sputtered fluorinated amorphous carbon films for sub-0.25 μm low κ damascene multilevel interconnect applications. p. 845.
Chang, J. P. Krautter, H. W. Zhu, W. Opila, R. L. and Pai, C. S. 1999. Chemical and Thermal Stability of Fluorinated Amorphous Carbon Films for Interlayer Dielectric Applications. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 565, Issue. ,
Grill, Alfred 1999. Diamond-like carbon: state of the art. Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 8, Issue. 2-5, p. 428.
Endo, Kazuhiko Shinoda, Keisuke and Tatsumi, Toru 1999. Plasma deposition of low-dielectric-constant fluorinated amorphous carbon. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue. 5, p. 2739.
Grill, A 1999. Electrical and optical properties of diamond-like carbon. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 355-356, Issue. , p. 189.
Yang, Hongning Evans, David R. Nguyen, Tue Stecker, Lisa H. Ulrich, Bruce and Hsu, S.-T. 1999. Multilevel Damascene Interconnection in Integration of MOCVD Cu and Low-k Fluorinated Amorphous Carbon. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 565, Issue. ,
Chang, J. P. Krautter, H. W. Zhu, W. Opila, R. L. and Pai, C. S. 1999. Integration of fluorinated amorphous carbon as low-dielectric constant insulator: Effects of heating and deposition of tantalum nitride. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 17, Issue. 5, p. 2969.
Morgen, Michael Ryan, E. Todd Zhao, Jie-Hua Hu, Chuan Cho, Taiheui and Ho, Paul S. 2000. Low Dielectric Constant Materials for ULSI Interconnects. Annual Review of Materials Science, Vol. 30, Issue. 1, p. 645.
Guo, Jinghua Skytt, Per Wassdahl, Nial and Nordgren, Joseph 2000. In situ and ex situ characterization of thin films by soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 110-111, Issue. , p. 41.
Grill, A. 2001. Amorphous carbon based materials as the interconnect dielectric in ULSI chips. Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 234.
Grill, A. 2001. Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology. p. 2143.
Chang, T.C Mor, Y.S Liu, P.T Tsai, T.M Chen, C.W Mei, Y.J and Sze, S.M 2001. The effect of ammonia plasma treatment on low-k methyl-hybrido-silsesquioxane against photoresist stripping damage. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 398-399, Issue. , p. 632.
Valentini, L. Braca, E. Kenny, J. M. Lozzi, L. and Santucci, S. 2001. Fluorinated amorphous carbon thin films: Analysis of the role of the plasma source frequency on the structural and optical properties. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 2168.
Grill, A 2001. From tribological coatings to low-k dielectrics for ULSI interconnects. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 398-399, Issue. , p. 527.
Chang, T. C. Mor, Y. S. Liu, P. T. Tsai, T. M. Chen, C. W. Mei, Y. J. and Sze, S. M. 2002. Recovering Dielectric Loss of Low Dielectric Constant Organic Siloxane during the Photoresist Removal Process. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 149, Issue. 8, p. F81.
Chang, T. C. Mor, Y. S. Liu, P. T. Tsai, T. M. Chen, C. W. Chu, C. J. Pan, F. M. Lur, W. and Sze, S. M. 2002. Trimethylchlorosilane Treatment of Ultralow Dielectric Constant Material after Photoresist Removal Processing. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 149, Issue. 10, p. F145.
Mor, Y. S. Chang, T. C. Liu, P. T. Tsai, T. M. Chen, C. W. Yan, S. T. Chu, C. J. Wu, W. F. Pan, F. M. Lur, Water and Sze, S. M. 2002. Effective repair to ultra-low-k dielectric material (k∼2.0) by hexamethyldisilazane treatment. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 1334.
Endo, K. Kishimoto, K. Matsubara, Y. and Koyanagi, K. 2003. Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications. Vol. 9, Issue. , p. 121.
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A variety of diamondlike carbon (DLC) materials were investigated for their potential applications as low-k dielectrics for the back end of the line (BEOL) interconnect structures in ULSI circuits. Hydrogenated DLC and fluorine containing DLC (FDLC) were studied as a low-k interlevel and intralevel dielectrics (ILD), while silicon containing DLC (SiDLC) was studied as a potential low-k etch stop material between adjacent DLC based ILD layers, which can be patterned by oxygen-based plasma etching
It was found that the dielectric constant (k) of the DLC films can be varied between >3.3 and 2.7 by changing the deposition conditions. The thermal stability of these DLC films was found to be correlated to the values of the dielectric constant, decreasing with decreasing k. While DLC films having dielectric constants k>3.3 appeared to be stable to anneals of 4 hours at 400 °C in He, a film having a dielectric constant of 2.7 was not, losing more than half of its thickness upon exposure to the same anneal. The stresses in the DLC films were found to decrease with decreasing dielectric constant, from 700 MPa to about 250 MPa. FDLC films characterized by a dielectric constant of about 2.8 were found to have similar thermal stability as DLC films with k >3.3. The thermally stable FDLC films have internal stresses <300 MPa and are thus promising candidates as a low-k ILD.
For the range of Si contents examined (0-9% C replacement by Si), SiDLC films with a Si content of around 5% appear to provide an effective etch-stop for oxygen RIE of DLC or FDLC films, while retaining desirable electrical characteristics. These films showed a steady state DLC/SiDLC etch rate ratio of about 17, and a dielectric constant only about 30% higher than the 3.3 of DLC.
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