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Controlled Mass Flow of Low Volatility Liquid Source Materials

  • Alan D. Nolet (a1), Bruce C. Rhine (a1), Mark A. Logan (a1), Lloyd Wright (a1) and Joseph R. Monkowski (a1)...

Abstract

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of thin films for microelectronic devices has historically used source materials that are gases at room temperature [1]. The decision to use gases was largely a practical one based on the relative ease with which the flow of gaseous materials can be controlled. CVD of thin films plays a vital role in increased circuit density and performance of integrated circuits. Liquid sources offer alternative source composition, reaction kinetics and reaction mechanisms to optimize a given CVD process [2].

For example, CVD films of silicon dioxide (oxide) and oxide films modified to lower the glass transition temperature such a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) have traditionally used gaseous source materials such as silane, diborane and phosphine [3]. An all liquid system of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), triethylborate (TEB) and triethylphosphine (TEPhine) has been found to offer superior conformality and overall safety [4]. However, from a practical standpoint, the all liquid system has historically suffered from reliable, reproducible mass flow control.

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References

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1. See for example: Kern, W. and Ban, V. in Thin Film Processes, Edited by Vossen, J.L. and Kern, W. (Academic, New York, 1978), 257331.
2. Becker, F.S., Pawlik, D., Schafer, H., and Staudigl, G.. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 4, (3), 732744 (May/June 1986).
3. Kern, W. presented at the 1988 ECS Fall Meeting, Chicago, IL, October 1988 (Extended Abstract #238).
4. Freeman, D., Logan, M., Wright, L., and Monkowski, J. presented at the 1988 ECS Fall Meeting, Chicago, IL, October 1988 (Extended Abstract #240).
5. Sullivan, J.J., Jacobs, R.P. Jr Solid State Technology, 29.10 1130118 (October, 1986).
6. Lev, R.A., Gallagher, P.K. and Schrey, F., Journal of the Electrochemical Socxiety, 134(2) 430437 (1987).
7. Freeman, D., Logan, M., Wright, L., and Monkowski, J., Journal of the Electrochemical Socxiety, 134(2) 430437 (1987).
8. Freeman, D., Kern, W. presented at the 1988 AVS Meeting, Atlanta, GA, October 1988 (Extended Abstract # ).

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