Using a novel microscopic Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), featuring Array Head Detector, work function topographies of metal, semiconductor and metal/semiconductor surfaces have been investigated.
The work function is an extremely important indicator of surface and interface condition and has been utilized to study preparation methods, surface roughness, stress defects and contamination, both in UHV and air environments.
Extension of the basic technique, via illumination of the surface under the probe, permits determination of the local density of states (LDOS). Variation in LDOS, due to both monochromatic and white light, can be used to study surface metal contamination, oxide thickness and bulk contamination.
The Kelvin method utilizes a non-contact, non-destructive, measurement mode. It produces work function and height topographies of both flat and rough metallic and semiconducting specimens in air, UHV and liquid environments.