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Ceramic Waste Form for Residues from Molten Salt Oxidation of Mixed Wastes

  • Richard A. Van Konynenburg (a1), Robert W. Hopper (a1), Joseph A. Rard (a1), Frederick J. Ryerson (a1), Douglas L. Phinney (a1), Ian D. Hutcheon (a1) and Paul G. Curtis (a1)...

Abstract

A ceramic waste form based on Synroc-D is under development for the incorporation of the mineral residues from molten salt oxidation treatment of mixed low-level wastes. Samples containing as many as 32 chemical elements have been fabricated, characterized, and leach-tested. Universal Treatment Standards have been satisfied for all regulated elements except two (lead and vanadium). Efforts are underway to further improve chemical durability.

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1. Oversby, V. M., Van Konynenburg, R. A., Glassley, W. E., and Curtis, P. G. in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XVII, edited by A., Barkatt and R. A. Van, Konynenburg (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 333, Pittsburgh, PA 1994) pp. 285292.
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3. Ryerson, F. J., J. Amer. Ceram Soc. 66, 629 (1983).
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, 40 CFR Part 261.24 and Appendix II, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
5. California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substance (part 66699) and Waste Extraction Test (WET) (part 66700), App. II, Div. 4.5, Title 22, California Code of Regulations, California state government, Sacramento, CA.
6. Rard, J. A., Interim Report on the Volatility and Thermal Stability of Some Halides, Oxyhalides. Oxides, Nitrates, Sulfates, and Other Compounds Relevant to the Synthesis of Ceramic Final Forms for Mixed Waste Immobilization, unpublished report no. L-20722-02, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
7. Vogel, W., Glass Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), p. 92.
8. Rawson, H., Inorganic Glass-Forming Systems (Academic Press, New York, 1967), p. 91.
9. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Parts 148, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 268, and 271: Land Disposal Restrictions Phase II--Universal Treatment Standards, and Treatment Standards for Organic Toxicity Characteristic Wastes and Newly Listed Wastes, Final Rule, Federal Register Vol.59, No. 180 (September 19, 1994), p. 47982.
10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Parts 148, 268, and 271 Land Disposal Regulations--Phase IV: Issues Associated with Clean Water Act Treatment Equivalency, and Treatment Standards for Wood Preserving Wastes and Toxicity Characteristic Metal Wastes, Proposed Rule, Federal Register Vol.60, No. 162 (August 22, 1995), p. 43654.

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