Hybrid orientation substrates make it possible to have a CMOS technology in which nFETs are on (100) Si (the Si orientation in which electron mobility is the highest) and pFETs are on (110)-oriented Si (the Si orientation in which hole mobility is the highest). This talk will describe a new amorphization/templated recrystallization (ATR) method for fabricating bulk hybrid orientation substrates. In a preferred version of this method, a silicon layer with a (110) orientation is directly bonded to a Si base substrate with a (100) orientation. Si regions selected for an orientation change are amorphized by ion implantation and then recrystallized to the (100) orientation of the base substrate. After an overview of the ATR technique and its various implementations, we will describe some of the scientifically interesting materials and integration challenges encountered while reducing it to practice.