Perovskite is the least durable of the resistate minerals comprising Synroc-C and it is desirable to reduce its abundance in Synroc. Kinetic limitations and competition with Csapparently affect the incorporation of Sr into hollandite during hot-pressing at 1200ºC/20 MPa so that ∼ 10% of perovskite (a value below the percolation limit) is probably an optimum target. Zirconolite-rich Synroc formulations have been prepared for actinide-rich wastes. Background XRD and TEM studies have also been performed to study the crystal-chemical behaviour of Nd (a simulant of trivalent actinides) in zirconolite. Either rare-earth compensated perovskite or freudenbergite in Synroc can evidently be used to immobilise Na-bearing HLW.