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Agglomeration of High Calcium Fly Ash for Utilization I. Physical Properties

  • Kenneth L. Bergeson (a1), Carol L Kilgour (a1) and Douglas Overmohle (a1)


Inability of the Iowa fly ash industry to meet their demands for fly ash during the peak construction months led the Iowa Fly Ash Affiliates to initiate research into storage alternatives for high-calcium fly ashes. Conventional, closed storage facilities are extremely expensive and currently not cost effective. In addition, the industry is faced with the rising costs of landfill disposal. This paper presents the results of utilizing the rapid self-cementitious properties of high-calcium ashes to agglomerate them into discrete, aggregate size particles for stockpiling. The two fly ashes used in this study contained 25 to 30 percent calcium. Water was used as an agglomerating medium. Agglomeration was accomplished using three types of commercial equipment as follows: continuous rotary pan agglomerator, continuous auger agglomerator and a batch turbine agglomerator. All units produced relatively well graded aggregate material differing primarily in particle shape and texture. Research work discussed includes gradation, strength, and durability of the agglomerates. Agglomerates were also reground using a newlydeveloped, energy efficient, micronizing technique. Research results using the reground ash in concrete and soil stabilization are presented.



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1. Kilgour, C. L., Bergeson, K. L. and Schlorholtz, S., in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By Products: Characterization Utilization and Disposal VI, edited by Hemmings, R.T., Berry, E.E., McCarthy, G.J. and Glasser, F.P., (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol.136, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989), pp. 161168
2. Kilgour, C.L., Bergeson, K.L. and Schlorholtz, S, “Agglomeration of High Calcium Fly Ash for Utilization: II Binding Mechanisms” This symposium
3. Schlorholtz, S., Bergeson, K. L. and Demirel, T., in Fly Ash and coal Conversion By-Products: Classification. Utilization and Disposal III, edited by McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P., Roy, D.M. and Diamond, S., (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol.86, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989), pp. 325336.
4. Wiley, A.C., Micronized Coal Technology: Progress and Potential Applications, 4th Annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference Sept 28-Oct 2, 1987
5. Kilgour, C.L., Bergeson, K.L. and Schlorholtz, S., “Use of Agglomeration and Micronization Techniques as Means for Increasing Fly Ash Utilization”, 21st Biennial Conference of the Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration, New Orleans, LA, October 1989 (to be published)

Agglomeration of High Calcium Fly Ash for Utilization I. Physical Properties

  • Kenneth L. Bergeson (a1), Carol L Kilgour (a1) and Douglas Overmohle (a1)


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