Published online by Cambridge University Press: 10 February 2011
The polishing of copper and examination of the polished surfaces were carried out with surfactant based alumina slurries to yield interesting results. Contrary to our expectation and previously reported research, some of the surfactant based alumina slurries resulted in higher copper polish rates when compared to the control. Of the nonionic surfactants, BrijR 35 was overall the most effective in both acidic and basic media. Ionics were effective at the pH for the appropriate charge type. For the range of surfactants studied, polish rates correlated with the HLB of the nonionic surfactants. The Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) is related to the solubility of the surfactant, with higher number corresponding to increased water dispersibility. The surfactant BrijR 35, with the nonionic composition polyoxyethylene(23) lauryl ether, resulted in a dramatic improvement in the average surface uniformity when compared with the control at pH 2, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate produced even greater uniformity. Additionally, the effect of BrijR 35 surfactant was maintained with change in abrasive size, pad and polishing tool. In order to insure that surfactants are compatible with the chemical reagents contained in the commercial slurries, two chemistries (ferric nitrate and hydrogen peroxide) were employed to test the efficiency of the selected surfactants in their presence. The results showed that the effect of surfactant on stability and removal rate is not influenced by the presence of the chemicals. Preliminary results indicate that surfactants can have a beneficial effect on both defects and post polish clean.
Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.