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Two-dimensional materials under electron irradiation

  • Litao Sun (a1), Florian Banhart (a2) and Jamie Warner (a3)

Abstract

This article reviews atomic-resolution in situ electron microscopy studies of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and metal dichalcogenides with a focus on defect structures. Electron irradiation allows defect formation and atomic-resolution imaging at the same time by the same electron beam. Two-dimensional hexagonal lattices show unique mechanisms of defect reconstruction that do not appear in other materials. The combination of thermal annealing and irradiation, both adjustable in the electron microscope, sets a balance between equilibrium and nonequilibrium and allows for the generation of new structures and morphologies.

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