- Cited by 48
Stephenson, G. B. Eastman, J. A. Thompson, C. Auciello, O. Thompson, L. J. Munkholm, A. Fini, P. DenBaars, S. P. and Speck, J. S. 1999. Observation of growth modes during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of GaN. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, Issue. 22, p. 3326.
Munkholm, A. Stephenson, G. B. Eastman, J. A. Thompson, C. Fini, P. Speck, J. S. Auciello, O. Fuoss, P. H. and DenBaars, S. P. 1999. Surface Structure of GaN(0001) in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Environment. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 83, Issue. 4, p. 741.
Ramana Murty, M. V. Fini, P. Stephenson, G. B. Thompson, Carol Eastman, J. A. Munkholm, A. Auciello, O. Jothilingam, R. DenBaars, S. P. and Speck, J. S. 2000. Step bunching on the vicinal GaN(0001) surface. Physical Review B, Vol. 62, Issue. 16, p. R10661.
Munkholm, A. Thompson, C. Stephenson, G.B. Eastman, J.A. Auciello, O. Fini, P. Speck, J.S. and DenBaars, S.P. 2000. Transition between the 1×1 and surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment. Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 283, Issue. 1-3, p. 217.
Munkholm, A. Thompson, Carol Ramana Murty, M. V. Eastman, J. A. Auciello, O. Stephenson, G. B. Fini, P. DenBaars, S. P. and Speck, J. S. 2000. Layer-by-layer growth of GaN induced by silicon. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue. 11, p. 1626.
Kalke, Martine and Baxter, David V. 2001. A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of chemical vapor deposition: non-monotonic variation of surface roughness with growth temperature. Surface Science, Vol. 477, Issue. 2-3, p. 95.
Thompson, Carol Stephenson, G. B. Eastman, J. A. Munkholm, A. Auciello, O. Murty, M. V. Ramana Fini, P. DenBaars, S. P. and Speck, J. S. 2001. Investigations of Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaN Using Synchrotron Radiation. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 148, Issue. 5, p. C390.
Sumiya, Masatomo Ogusu, Noritaka Osada, Kouhei and Fuke, Shunro 2001. In-Situ Rheed Observation of Mocvd-Gan Film Growth. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 693, Issue. ,
Bartl, Michael H Gatterer, Karl Cavalli, Enrico Speghini, Adolfo and Bettinelli, Marco 2001. Growth, optical spectroscopy and crystal field investigation of YAl3(BO3)4 single crystals doped with tripositive praseodymium. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Vol. 57, Issue. 10, p. 1981.
Matz, W. Schell, N. Neumann, W. Bøttiger, J. and Chevallier, J. 2001. A two magnetron sputter deposition chamber for in situ observation of thin film growth by synchrotron radiation scattering. Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 72, Issue. 8, p. 3344.
Lee, Hsin-Yi Hsu, C.-H. Hsieh, Y.-W. and Liang, K. S. 2002. Real-time x-ray scattering study of homoepitaxial growth of SrTiO3 by sputtering. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 749, Issue. ,
Streiffer, S. K. Eastman, J. A. Fong, D. D. Thompson, Carol Munkholm, A. Ramana Murty, M. V. Auciello, O. Bai, G. R. and Stephenson, G. B. 2002. Observation of Nanoscale180°Stripe Domains in FerroelectricPbTiO3Thin Films. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 89, Issue. 6,
Murty, M. V. Ramana Streiffer, S. K. Stephenson, G. B. Eastman, J. A. Bai, G.-R. Munkholm, A. Auciello, O. and Thompson, Carol 2002. In situ x-ray scattering study of PbTiO3 chemical-vapor deposition. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 80, Issue. 10, p. 1809.
Ruthe, K. C. DeLuca, P. M. and Barnett, S. A. 2002. Specular ion current measurements as a quantitative, real-time probe of GaAs(001) epitaxial growth. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 984.
Bharuth-Ram, K. Vetter, U. Hofsäss, H. Ronning, C. and Dietrich, M. 2002. Implantation sites of Ce and Gd in diamond. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 190, Issue. 1-4, p. 835.
Koblmüller, G. Pongratz, P. Averbeck, R. and Riechert, H. 2002. Delayed nucleation during molecular-beam epitaxial growth of GaN observed by line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometry. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 80, Issue. 13, p. 2281.
Koblm�ller, G. Pongratz, P. Averbeck, R. and Riechert, H. 2002. Nucleation Phenomena during Molecular Beam Epitaxy of GaN Observed by Line-of-Sight Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. physica status solidi (a), Vol. 194, Issue. 2, p. 515.
Jenichen, Bernd Braun, Wolfgang Kaganer, Vladimir M. Shtukenberg, Alexander G. Däweritz, Lutz Schulz, Carl-Günther Ploog, Klaus H. and Erko, Alexei 2003. Combined molecular beam epitaxy and diffractometer system forin situx-ray studies of crystal growth. Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 74, Issue. 3, p. 1267.
Nicolas, S. Descroix, E. Joubert, M.F. Guyot, Y. Laroche, M. Moncorgé, R. Abdulsabirov, R.Yu. Naumov, A.K. Semashko, V.V. Tkachuk, A.M. and Malinowski, M. 2003. Potentiality of Pr3+- and Pr3++Ce3+-doped crystals for tunable UV upconversion lasers. Optical Materials, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 139.
Ellmer, K Mientus, R Wei , V and Rossner, H 2003. In situenergy-dispersive x-ray diffraction system for time-resolved thin-film growth studies. Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 336.
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Vapor-phase processes such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and reactive ion etching are the primary methods for the production-scale synthesis and processing of many high-quality thin-film materials. For example, these processes are widely used in the microelectronics industry for synthesis and lithography of the various semiconducting, insulating, and conducting layers in devices. Understanding the means of controlling the microstructure and composition of these materials is of great technological interest. However a difficulty often encountered in developing vapor-phase processes is an undesirable dependence on trial-and-error methods for optimizing the many process parameters. These parameters include gas composition, flow rate, pressure, and substrate temperature, all of which are typically changing with time. This reliance on empirical methods can be attributed to the tremendous chemical and physical complexity of vapor-phase processes and the lack of appropriate in situ measurement techniques for the vapor-phase environment.
We have initiated a program to apply synchrotron x-ray analysis techniques as real-time probes of film and surface structure during vapor-phase processing. X-rays have a combination of properties which makes them particularly well-suited for these studies. Unlike electrons, x-rays have a sufficiently low absorption to penetrate vapor-phase processing environments and chamber walls. Unlike visible light, x-rays have wavelengths and energies suitable for study of atomic-scale structure and chemistry. A growing number of in situ synchrotron x-ray investigations of film growth and processing demonstrate the power of these techniques.
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