Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-kbzls Total loading time: 0.287 Render date: 2021-04-12T23:45:24.940Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

Display Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2013

Get access

Extract

The human eye places remarkably stringent requirements on the devices we use to illuminate objects or generate images. Exceedingly small deviations in color or contrast from what we consider natural are easily judged by the brain to be fake. Such cognition drives consumer practice, so great efforts have been made for over a century to synthesize emissive materials that match the response functions associated with the human perception of color. This is an extremely difficult task, given the diverse range of considerations, some of which include whether (1) the display is viewed under artificial light or natural sunlight, (2) the images are stationary or moving, and (3) the rendering of depth in a two-dimensional image is believable.

Established technologies including cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), vacuum fluorescent displays (VFDs), lamps, and x-ray phosphors have made possible a wide variety of display and imaging devices. However, continued advances are required to increase brightness, contrast, color purity, resolution, lifetime, and viewing angle while still lessening the cost, weight, volume, and power consumption. Mature or emerging technologies that address these issues include thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) displays, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs),8 field-emission displays (FEDs),9 and plasma displays (PDs).10-12 Each of these technologies uses luminescent materials consisting typically of an activator from which light is emitted and a host for low concentrations of the activator (typically >1% activator). The requirements of the host and activator are discussed in a later section. The luminescent material can exhibit either a narrow emission spectrum, useful for color displays, or a broadband emission, which can extend into multiple colors. In addition, with multiple activator/host combinations, a luminescent material can emit several colors and even white light. While LCDs are light valves, which may be used in a reflective mode and therefore do not require a luminescent material, low-light situations require a backlight generated by a luminescent material. Many of the most versatile, efficient activators are rare-earth (RE) elements, for reasons that will be discussed. The ability of RE ions to emit red, green, and blue light make them well suited for application in visible-display technologies. This article reviews dopant and host material systems, excitation mechanisms, and the factors that limit the achievable luminescent intensity and efficiency. Device configurations for modern displays are discussed, as are materials and structures for next-generation technologies. Since each display technology has different performance and operational requirements, only the basic characteristics will be discussed here to enable an appreciation of emission from RE activators. References to the literature are supplied to further direct the reader to more in-depth discussions.

Type
Photonic Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1999

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1.Inaho, S. and Hase, T., in Phosphor Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999) p. 509.Google Scholar
2.Ozawa, L., Mater. Chew. Phys. 51 (1997) p. 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Morimoto, K., in Phosphor Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999) p. 561.Google Scholar
4.Ronda, C., Jüstel, T., and Nikol, H., J. Alloys Comp. 275–277 (1998) p. 669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5.Blasse, G. and Grabmeier, B.C., Luminescent Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994) p. 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Mach, R., in Solid State Luminescence: Theory, Materials, and Devices, edited by Kitai, A. (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993) p. 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7.Rack, P., Naman, A., Holloway, P., Sun, S., and Tuenge, R., MRS Bull. 21 (3) (1996) p. 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8.Schadt, M., Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27 (1997) p. 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9.Leskelä, M., J. Alloys Comp. 275–277 (1998) p. 702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10.Sobel, A., Sci. Am. 278 (1998) p. 70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11.Boeuf, J., Punset, C., and Doyeux, H., J. Phys. IV 7 (1997) p. 3.Google Scholar
12.Weber, L., Inf. Display 5 (1989) p. 12.Google Scholar
13.Kaminskii, A., Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, New York, 1996) p. 33.Google Scholar
14. For a more in-depth description of the Judd-Ofelt formalism, see either Powell, R., Physics of Solid State Laser Materials, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998) p. 309 or the original contributions: B. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127 (1962) p. 750; G. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37 (1962) p. 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15.Riseberg, L.A., in Radiationless Processes, edited by DiBartolo, B. (Plenum Press, New York, 1980) p. 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16.van Toi, J. and van der Waals, J., Chem. Phys. Lett. 194 (1992) p. 288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17.de Bruin, T., Weigel, M., Dirkson, G., and Blasse, G., J. Solid State Chem. 107 (1993) p. 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18.O'Brien, T.A., Rack, P.D., Holloway, P.H., and Zerner, M.C., J. Lumin. 78 (1998) p. 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19.Tanabe, S. and Hanada, T., J. Appi. Phys. 76 (1994) p. 3730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.Holloway, P., Jones, S., Rack, P., Sebastian, J., and Trottier, T., in Proc. 10th IEEE Int. Symp. on Appl. Ferroelectrics, edited by Kulwicki, B., Amin, A., and Safari, A. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996) p. 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21.Seki, M., Takano, Y., Takei, T., Ueda, S., Kawai, T., Katoh, T., Yamamoto, T., Kuriyama, T., Koike, J., Murakami, H., Sasaoka, Y., Atsumi, T., Sakamoto, F., Kiriyama, K., and Wani, K.. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 42 (1996) p. 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Shinoda, T., Kariya, K., Wakitani, M., Otsuka, A., and Hirose, T., in Digest of Technical Papers, 1996 IEEE Int. Conf. Consumer Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996) p. 256.Google Scholar
23.Okajima, T., Sano, Y., Koyama, N., Ota, T., and Nunomura, K., in Proc. Int. Display Research Conf. 1991 (San Diego, CA, October 15–17, 1991) p. 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24.Sun, S., Displays 19 (1999) p. 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.Holloway, P., Trottier, T., Abrams, B., Kondoleon, C., Jones, S., Sebastian, J., and Thomes, W., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 17 (1999) p. 758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26.Stookey, S.D., Glastech. Ber. 32 (1959) p. 1.Google Scholar
27.Wang, Y. and Ohwaki, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63 (1993) p. 3268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28.Tick, P., Borelli, N., Cornelius, L., and Newhouse, M., J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) p. 6367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29.Dejneka, M., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239 (1998) p. 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30.Dejneka, M., MRS Bull. 23 (11) (1998) p. 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31.Rapaport, A., Ayrault, K., Matthew-Daniel, E. St., and Bass, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999) p. 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 69 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 12th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Display Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Display Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Display Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped Materials
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *