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ZnO films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering with nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) under various gas pressures. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the NMC-ZnO films are highly crystalline regardless of the gas pressure, and the full width at half maximum values of the (0002) rocking curves range from 0.032 to 0.044°. In contrast, atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the gas pressure plays an important role in determining the surface morphology of the films. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness decreases monotonically from 1.05 to 0.60 nm with increasing pressure from 0.2 to 0.7 Pa. However, the RMS roughness increases with further increases in the pressure, reaching 2.15 nm at 2.1 Pa. The height distribution of the NMC-ZnO films derived from the AFM images is narrowest at 0.7 Pa, indicating that the smooth surface obtained at 0.7 Pa can be attributed to spatially uniform nucleation occurring in a short time period. These results indicate that the sputtering gas pressure is a key parameter for controlling the surface morphology of NMC-ZnO films.
AlGaN based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on 8° vicinal 4H p-SiC substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The MQWs were designed to emit near 300 nm using the wurtzite k.p model. The MQW periodicity and strain state were measured with X-ray diffraction. The optical properties were characterized with temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). The internal quantum efficiency was estimated from the ratio of room temperature to 18K integrated PL intensity. Internal quantum efficiency up to 48% was achieved. These data are encouraging for future vertical and inverted ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown on p-SiC substrates.
We have fabricated ZnInON (ZION), which is a pseudo-binary alloy of wurtzite ZnO and wurtzite InN and has a tunable band gap over the entire visible spectrum and a high optical absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. ZION films grow two dimensionally at Ts = room temperature (RT) and 150°C, whereas they grow three dimensionally at Ts = 250 and 450°C. These films at RT and 150°C show a step-terrace structure with the step height of 0.27 nm, which corresponds to the height of a single-atomic-layer step and the half length of the c-lattice parameter of ZION. ZION film has the same a-lattice parameter of 0.325 nm as ZnO and a longer c-lattice parameter of 0.536 nm, indicating the coherent growth of ZION films on ZnO templates. ZION film grown at RT shows blue (2.89 and 3.08 eV) photoluminescence at RT.
We report on recent doping experiments of cubic GaN epilayers by Ge and investigate in detail the optical properties by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was used to deposit Ge-doped cubic GaN layers with nominal thicknesses of 600 nm on 3C-SiC(001)/Si(001) substrates. The Ge doping level could be varied by around six orders of magnitude by changing the Ge effusion cell temperature. A maximum free carrier concentration of 3.7×1020 cm-3 was measured in the GaN layers via Hall-effect at room temperature. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) showed a clear shift of the donor-acceptor emission to higher energies with increasing Ge-doping. Above a Ge concentration of ∼ 2x1018cm-3 the near band edge lines merge to one broad band. From temperature dependent measurements of the observed excitonic and donor-acceptor transitions a donor-energy of ∼ 36 meV could be estimated for Ge.
For the first time, we are reporting the growth of high quality single crystalline 3C-SiC epitaxially on hexagonal silicon carbide substrates using Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HF-CVD) on full 4” wafers. Rocking curve X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements resulted in a full width at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 88 arcsec for a 40 µm thick layer. We achieved this quality using a carefully optimized process making use of the additional degrees of freedom the hot filaments create. The filaments allow for precursor pre-cracking and a tuning of the vertical thermal gradient, which creates an improved thermal field compared to conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition. Growth rates of up to 8 µm/h were achieved with standard silane and propane chemistry, and further increased to 20 µm/h with chlorinated chemistry. The use of silicon carbide substrates promises superior layer quality compared to silicon substrates due to their better match in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. High resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray rocking measurements, and micro-Raman allow us to assess the crystalline quality of our material and to compare it to layers grown on low-cost silicon substrates. Hall measurements reveal a linear increase of the charge carrier density in the material with the flow of nitrogen gas as a dopant. Electron densities above 10-18 cm-3 have been reached.
TiO2 film with the anatase structure was grown on the substrate by electrochemical parameters (high stability of NH2OH groups). In this investigation, TiO2 film with the anatase structure and the smooth surface would be electrochemically grown on the FTO conductive substrate by adding N-Methylhydroxyl amine into titanium potassium oxalate dehydrate aqueous solution.
Corundum-structured α-In2O3 was grown by mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on sapphire substrates with the use of α-Ga2O3 buffer layers. The use of ozone (O3) and thermal annealing in air were effective for improved surface morphology and electrical properties of the α-In2O3 layer. MOSFETs were fabricated using the α-In2O3 layer, where the residual electron concentrations were temporary reduced by doping Mg acceptors. Nevertheless the MOSFETs showed the best field-effect mobility of as high as 187 cm2/V⋅s and the best effective mobility of as high as 240 cm2/V⋅s, suggesting high potential of α-In2O3 MOSFETs.
Point defects in diamond such as vacancies act as a strong donor compensation center; therefore, remarkably reduce electron conductivity of diamond-based devices. Artificial synthesis methods of n-type diamond utilize the hydrogen-containing precursors enabling its diffusion into diamond crystal and subsequent formation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes. Here we employ spin-polarized, hybrid density functional theory calculations, in order to characterize the electronic properties and stability of hydrogen-passivated vacancies in diamond. We found strong thermodynamic preference for hydrogen passivation of four vacancy-related dangling bonds. An analysis of formation energy vs Fermi level diagrams indicate, that strong donor compensation effect associated with vacancies can be entirely neutralized by hydrogen incorporation. Thus, a careful control of hydrogen partial pressure in the growth process might be crucial to improve the electron conductivity of n-type diamond.
Chromium doped II-VI semiconductors (such as ZnSe and ZnS) feature broad mid-IR emission in the 2-3 μm spectral range due to intershell transitions of the Cr2+ ions. These materials show much promise for development of a tunable, electrically-pumped, mid-IR laser source. For integration into a mid-IR active multilayered structure, the ternary alloy ZnSxSe1-x is an attractive waveguiding material due to its lattice-matching ability and lower index of refraction with respect to the Cr2+:ZnSe active material. Epitaxial growth of each layer is desired to achieve the electronic and optical properties necessary for successful integration into a lasing device, so a study was conducted on the effects of sulfur content and growth temperature on the crystal quality of the resulting thin films. Several films of ZnSxSe1-x were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser source at varying growth temperatures and with various compositional parameters onto (100) GaAs substrates. The samples were analyzed via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) to investigate the crystal quality and elemental content of the films for device integration. Film-substrate epitaxy was achieved and upper bounds to the defect density were calculated for several regimes of compositional parameter and growth temperature. From all samples produced, the lowest defect density of 2.2 x 1010 cm-2 was observed for the x=0.06 film grown at 450°C, while the lowest lattice mismatch between the substrate and epilayer of 0.059% was observed for the x=0.02 film grown at 450°C.
In this work, temperature-dependent optical properties of a series of AlN thin films with different thickness are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) ranging from 300 to 825K. The fitted refractive index at 300K is in good agreement with the reported by others, which confirms the high accuracy of the optical model used in this work. The degradation of the absorption properties and the decrease of the bandgap become more pronounced with temperature increases above 475K. A larger change of bandgap at elevated temperature is observed for the thinner AlN epi-layer (300nm) than the thicker ones (404nm). This can be attributed to the poor surface morphologies and crystal qualities in the thinner AlN epi-layer.
InAlN films and InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were demonstrated on 150mm <111> Si using Veeco’s Propel single wafer metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Smooth surfaces with root mean square (rms) roughness of 0.68 nm were observed in a 5x5 μm2 atomic force microscope (AFM) scan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows well-defined layer peaks and fringes, indicating good structural quality and abrupt layer interfaces. Thickness uniformity of InAlN is 0.87%, 1σ, for a 7-point XRD measurement across the 150 mm wafer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis confirms the uniform indium depth profile and the presence of abrupt layer interfaces. Negligible Ga (< 100 ppm, atomic) incorporation was detected in the InAlN bulk film. Film sheet resistance of 230Ω/sq, charge of 2.1×1013/cm2, and mobility of 1270 cm2/V.s were measured on a prototypical InAlN/GaN HEMT structure comprising a 10 nm-thick, 17% indium, InAlN barrier.