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Multifunctionality was created by coupling an electronic charge carrier transport with ionic conductivity or ferroelectricity in polarized liquid crystal phases. Liquid-crystalline perylene bisimide derivatives bearing cyclotetrasiloxane rings and triethylene oxide chains formed nanosegregated columnar structures which could conduct ions as well as electrons. The spin-coated thin films could be insolubilized by the exposure on acid vapors and display electrochromism. Phenylterthiophene derivatives bearing a chiral alkyl side chain exhibited a ferroelectric phase, in which a photovoltaic effect was caused by the interaction between photogenerated charge carriers with the internal electric field formed by the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric phase.
Optimizing interfaces between photosynthetic natural photoconverters, like photosynthetic bacterial Reaction Centers (RCs) and electrode surfaces represents a challenge in the progress of bio-optoelectronic devices. The features of the surfaces may result detrimental for the tertiary and quaternary structures of the RC, even resulting in the denaturation of the enzyme. Functional surfaces possessing both confinement capability and conductive features able to preserve the conformation of the biomolecule and its bioelectronic behaviours are highly needed. In this work, the RC is adsorbed on diatomaceous silica and plasma treated hydrophobic silicon based materials. Both the materials are demonstrated to be able to preserve and enhance the RC photoconverting activity. In particular, we evaluate the functioning of isolated bacterial RC interacting with flat pSi electrode through two nanotextured interfaces designed to address the RC: a thin conductive silicon film nanotextured in pillars via plasma treatment, and a cast film of nanostructured dielectric biosilica obtained from diatomaceous earth. The characterization of these interfaces, together with the RC photocurrent production measurements, pave the way to new generation RC based bio-devices for photocurrent investigation.
Incorporation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer matrix has been used to enhance and control dissolution and release of drugs, for targeted drug delivery, as antimicrobial agents, localized heat sources, and for unique optoelectronic applications. Gold NPs in particular exhibit a plasmonic response that has been utilized for photothermal energy conversion. Because plasmonic nanoparticles typically exhibit a plasmon resonance frequency similar to the visible light spectrum, they present as good candidates for direct photothermal conversion with enhanced solar thermal efficiency in these wavelengths. In our work, we have incorporated ∼3-nm-diameter colloidal gold (Auc) NPs into electrospun polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers to utilize the nanoparticle plasmonic response for localized heating and melting of the polymer to release medical treatment. Auc and Auc in PEG (PEG+Auc) both exhibited a minimum reflectivity at 522 nm or approximately green wavelengths of light under ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. PEG+Auc ES fibers revealed a blue shift in minimum reflectivity at 504 nm. UV-Vis spectra were used to calculate the theoretical efficiency enhancement of PEG+Auc versus PEG alone, finding an approximate increase of 10 % under broad spectrum white light interrogation, and ∼14 % when illuminated with green light. Auc enhanced polymers were ES directly onto resistance temperature detectors and interrogated with green laser light so that temperature change could be recorded. Results showed a maximum increase of 8.9 °C. To further understand how gold nanomaterials effect the complex optical properties of our materials, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry and modeling with CompleteEASE® software, the complex optical constants of our materials were determined. The complex optical constant n (index of refraction) provided us with optical density properties related to light wavelength divided by velocity, and k (extinction coefficient) was used to show the absorptive properties of the materials.
We present theoretical calculations of the line shapes of emission spectra of ZnO micro spheres (MSs), including the exciton-polariton and Purcell effect. Our calculation explains the red shift of emission peaks of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in UV range commonly observed in ZnO MSs. We show that the red shift of the UV emission peak is caused by the combination of cavity effect and the polariton dispersion. The positions and relative strengths of sharp peaks arising from WGMs are also simulated by our calculation, and theoretical predictions match well with experimental data. Our calculation provides useful guide lines for the design of MS cavities for applications in white-light illumination, optical communication, and biosensing.
We present a study of optical and electronic properties of solutions and films based on the fungi-derived pigment xylindein, extracted from decaying wood and processed without and with a simple purification step (“ethanol wash”). The “post-wash” xylindein solutions exhibited considerably lower absorption in the ultraviolet spectral range and dramatically reduced photoluminescence below 600 nm, due to removal of contaminants most likely to be fungal secondary metabolites. The “post-wash” xylindein-based films were characterized by two orders of magnitude higher charge carrier mobilities as compared to “pre-wash” samples. This underlines the importance of minimizing contaminants that disrupt the conductive xylindein network in xylindein-based electronic devices.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted huge concern because of their intrinsic characteristics and ability to reach the pinnacle in the field of high-quality flat-panel displays and energy-efficient solid-state lighting. High-efficiency is always a key crux for OLED devices being energy-saving and longer life-span. OLEDs have encountered enormous difficulties in meeting the requirements for large-sized devices due to a major limitation in vacuum thermal evaporation technology. In multilayered OLED devices, the characteristics of the charge injection/transport layer is a crucial factor for the operating-voltage, power-efficiency and stability of the device. Transition metal oxides have shown great potential owing to their wide range of possible energy level alignments, balanced charge injection, and improvement of carrier mobilities. In this study, we report a solution-processed blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS hole-injection/hole-transport layer (HIL/HTL) for efficient orange phosphorescent OLEDs. The electroluminescent characteristics of blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based devices were studied with the structure ITO/V2O5-PEDOT:PSS/CBP:Ir(2-phq)3/TPBi/LiF/Al. The V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based OLEDs displayed relatively higher device performance and low roll-off than that of the counter PEDOT:PSS device in terms of a maximum luminance of 17,670 cd m-2, power efficiency of 19.4 lm W-1, external quantum efficiency of 8.7%, and more importantly, low turn-on voltage. These results demonstrate an alternative approach based on metal oxide/organic blend HIL/HTL as a substitute of PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Polymeric conjugated materials are convenient for developing future soft-material-based semiconductors, conductors, electronic and optoelectronic devices due to their inherent features. Similar to their inorganic counterparts, the addition of certain minority molecules, or dopants, to polymeric conjugated materials can significantly alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of the host conjugated polymers or composites. This allows for tunability of a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications. One way to improve device performance is through the process of thermal annealing. Annealing allows for a polymer matrix to self-assemble into a lower energy state, which leads to an increase in crystallinity and higher charge mobility. Previous research does not explicitly define how dopants can affect this process. This study involves an evaluation of the effects of annealing with doped P3HT films to demonstrate changes in optoelectronic and electronic properties.
Hybrid organic-inorganic semiconducting interfaces have attracted attention in photodiodes and field-effect transistors (FETs) due to the realization of intrinsic p-n junctions and their mechanical flexibility. With the difficulty of developing high-mobility n-type organic semiconductors due to the necessity of low LUMO levels and ambient environment stability, solution processable inorganic materials are an excellent alternative. ZnO is an intrinsic n-type semiconductor which is non-toxic and sol-gel processable, creating avenues for film patterning and fully solution processed devices. We report the improvement of electron mobilities in ZnO FETs through simple UV-Ozone processing which reduces lattice defects within the film and at the SiO2/ZnO interface. Treated ZnO films yield electron mobilities close to 10-2 cm2/Vs and on/off current ratios of 104 while non-treated films have mobilities on the order of 10-5 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude lower on/off current ratios. Treated films also yield improved photoresponsivity and detectivity in hybrid ZnO-organic photodetectors.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have drawn great attention owing to their potential applications in high-quality flat display panels and smart solid-state lighting. Over the last three decades, numerous approaches have been made on material design and device physics to achieve high-efficiency and long-lifespan. Herein, we report a novel tactic to employ solution-processed hybrid metal oxide, molybdenum trioxide-tungsten trioxide (MoO3:WO3), as an efficient and stable hole injection/transport (HIL/HTL) and electron blocking layer for efficient OLEDs. By using phosphorescent orange-red emitter tris(2-phenylquinoline)-iridium(III) Ir(2-phq)3, MoO3:WO3 HIL based OLED device exhibits a power efficiency of 27.7 lm W-1 and 22.9 lm W-1 at 100 and 1000 cd m-2, respectively, which are 89% and 157% higher than that of conventional OLED device consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an HIL. Moreover, the resulted device also displays 1.6 times lower turn-on voltage and 3.0 time higher brightness as compare to other counter part. The higher device performances of OLED device may be attributed to robust hole transporting ability, balanced charge carrier in the recombination zone and non-acidic nature of designed HIL. Our results demonstrate that a novel alternative approach based on transition metal oxide hybrid HIL/HTL as a substitute to PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Chemical doping of organic semiconductors is a common technique used to increase the performance numerous organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. Tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is one of the most widely known p-dopants having the properties necessary to act as a strong electron acceptor. Despite its strong electron accepting abilities, F4-TCNQ is extremely expensive, making it less than ideal for large-area applications. Here, we introduce a small molecule called Tetracyanoindane (TCI) as a potential p-dopant. Widely known for its role in the field of non-linear optics, its high polarizability arises from the addition of four cyano-groups, which are electron withdrawing groups. The four cyano-groups are also seen in the F4-TCNQ molecule and contributes to the withdrawing strength alongside the four fluorine atoms present. We hypothesize that TCI could have similar accepting strength to F4-TCNQ and could potentially replace it as a cheaper alternative. In this study, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), UV-Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy (UV/Vis/NIR), Photoluminescence (PL), Current-Voltage (IV) measurements analysis was conducted to compare the accepting strength of TCI and F4-TCNQ. Then, the two molecules were added to Poly-3-hexy-thiophene (P3HT) to observe how readily they dope the organic semiconductor.