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X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction in Powder Samples with Time-Dependent Particle Size Distributions

  • Adriana Valério (a1), Sérgio L. Morelhão (a1), Alex J. Freitas Cabral (a2) (a3), Márcio M. Soares (a4) and Cláudio M. R. Remédios (a2)...

Abstract

In situ X-ray diffraction is one of the most useful tools for studying a variety of processes, among which crystallization of nanoparticles where phase purity and size control are desired. Growth kinetics of a single phase can be completely resolved by proper analysis of the diffraction peaks as a function of time. The peak width provides a parameter for monitoring the time evolution of the particle size distribution (PSD), while the peak area (integrated intensity) is directly related to the whole diffracting volume of crystallized material in the sample. However, to precisely describe the growth kinetics in terms of nucleation and coarsening, the correlation between PSD parameters and diffraction peak widths has to be established in each particular study. Corrections in integrated intensity values for physical phenomena such as variation in atomic thermal vibrations and dynamical diffraction effects have also to be considered in certain cases. In this work, a general correlation between PSD median value and diffraction peak width is deduced, and a systematic procedure to resolve time-dependent lognormal PSDs from in situ XRD experiments is described in details. A procedure to correct the integrated intensities for dynamical diffraction effects is proposed. As a practical demonstration, this analytical procedure has been applied to the single-phase crystallization process of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles.

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Keywords

X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction in Powder Samples with Time-Dependent Particle Size Distributions

  • Adriana Valério (a1), Sérgio L. Morelhão (a1), Alex J. Freitas Cabral (a2) (a3), Márcio M. Soares (a4) and Cláudio M. R. Remédios (a2)...

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