A complex mechanism of interfacial oxygen scavenging is revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for a resistive switching oxide of SrTiO3 with a scavenging layer of Ta. When Ta thin layer is inserted at one of the interfaces of Pt/SrTiO3/Pt structure, a large reduction of electrical resistance is induced for the structure, and oxygen defects are introduced at the interfacial part of SrTiO3. In the resistance decrease by voltage applications, simultaneous occurrence of oxidation and reduction of Ta scavenging layer is shown by EELS analyses from the low-loss spectra. The EELS and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations demonstrate that oxygen scavenging by Ta layer is an interfacial phenomenon where the redox reactions occur at the whole part of the interface. In addition, Pt electrode of the structure, which is chemically inert for oxidation, is revealed to have significant effects in the scavenging processes.