Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Recent examples of cathodoluminescence as a probe of surface structure and composition

  • P. D. Townsend (a1), T. Karali (a1), A. P. Rowlands (a1), V. A. Smith (a1) and G. Vazquez (a1)...

Abstract

Cathodoluminescence (CL) provides a sensitive analytical probe of the near-surface region of insulating materials, and some new examples of the strengths of the technique are presented using recent data from the University of Sussex. Analysis of float glass shows that by spectral and lifetime resolved data it is possible to separate the emission bands from excitonic, intrinsic imperfections, and impurities in various valence states, as a function of their depth beneath the surface. Correlation of the CL data with those from Mössbauer, ion beam and other analyses then provides the basis for models of the defect sites. CL from a second glass, ZBLAN, reveals the presence of microcrystallites and growth defects, and the work underpins confidence in the high purity gas levitation method of ZBLAN production. New results on CL of wavelength shifts with crystal field of Mn in carbonates are presented, and of Nd emission from Nd:YAG. The effects are directly linked to surface damage and dislocations caused by sample preparation steps of cutting and polishing. Methods to minimise the damage, by furnace or pulsed laser annealing, and chemical routes, are mentioned. Such surface preparation damage has a profound effect on all CL monitoring, whether for fundamental studies or mineralogical applications. Finally, a route to eliminate such problems is demonstrated, with consequent improvements in luminescence, transmission and laser performance of surface waveguides. The implications of improved surface quality range widely from mineralogical CL imaging through improved photonic materials and epitaxial growth to elimination of surface damage, and additional information.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aggarwal, I.D. and Lu, G. (1991) (Eds) Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics,Academic Press, Boston.
Agullo Lopez, F., Catlow, C.R.A. and Townsend, P.D. (1988) Point Defects in Materials,Cambridge University Press, London.
Calderon, T., Townsend, P.D., Beneitez, P., Garcia-Guinea, J., Millan, A., Rendell, H.M., Tookey, A., Urbina, M. and Wood, R.A. (1996) Crystal field effects on the thermoluminescenee of manganese in carbonate lattices. Rad. Measurements, 26, 719–31.
Can, N., Townsend, P.D., Hole, D.E., Snelling, H.V., Ballesteros, J.M. and Afonso, C.N. (1995) Enhancement of luminescence by pulsed laser annealing of ion implanted europium in sapphire and silica. J. Appl. Phys., 78, 6737–44.
Crookes, W. (1879) Contributions to molecular physics in high vacua. Phil Trans. Royal Soc., 170, 641–2.
Gan, F. (1995) Laser Materials. World Scientific, Singapore.
Gorobets, B.S., Gaft, M.L. and Podolskiy, A.M. (1989) Luminescence of minerals and ores, Ministry of Geology, Moscow USSR.
Gorton, N.T., Walker, G. and Burley, S.D. (1999) Experimental analysis of the composite blue CL emission in quartz — is this related to aluminium content. In Cathodoluminescence in Geosciences, (Pagel, M. et al., eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (in press).
Granier, J. and Potard, C. (1987) Containerless processing and modeling materials by the gas film levitation technique: early demonstration and modeling. Proc. 6th European Symp. on Material Sciences under microgravity conditions, Bordeaux, France 2-5 December 1986. Document ESA SP-256.
Holgate, S.A., Sloane, T.H., Townsend, P.D., White, D.R. and Chadwick, A.V. (1994) Thermo-lumines-cence of calcium fluoride doped with neodymium. J. Phys. Condensed Matter, 6, 9255–66.
Karali, T., Rowlands, A.P., Townsend, P.D., Prokic, M. and Olivares, J. (1998) Spectral comparison of Dy, Tm and Dy/Tm in CaSO4 thermoluminescent dosimeters. J. Phys. D, 31, 754–65.
Krbetschek, M.R., Gotze, J., Dietrich, A. and Trautmann, T. (1998) Spectral information from minerals relevant for luminescence dating. Rad. Measurements, 27, 695748.
Marshall, D.J. (1988) Cathodoluminescence of Geological Materials. Unwin Hyman, London.
McKeever, S.W.S., Moscovitch, M. and Townsend, P.D. (1995) Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Materials: Properties and Uses. Nuclear Technology Publishing, Ashford UK.
Merbay, J., Townsend, P.D. and Smith, V.A. (1998) Cathodoluminescence changes resulting from humidity and thermal treatments of float glass. Proc. Glass Technol. Meeting 1997. In Topical Issues in Glass, 2,7380.
Nunn, P J.T., Olivares, J., Spadoni, L., Townsend, P.D., Hole, D.E. and Luff, B.J. (1997) Ion beam enhanced chemical etching of Nd:YAG for optical wave-guides. Nucl. Inst. Methods B, 127/128, 507–11.
Ozawa, L. (1990) Cathodoluminescence,Theory and applications. Kodansha, Tokyo.
Pagel, M., Barbin, V., Blanc, Ph. and Ohnenstetter, D. (1999) (Eds) Cathodoluminescence in Geosciences,Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (in press).
Peto, A., Townsend, P.D., Hole, D.E., Harmer, S. (1997) Luminescence characterisation of lattice site modifications of Nd in Nd:YAG surface layers. J. Modern Optics, 44, 1217–30.
Pott, G.T. and McNicol, B.D. (1971) Spectroscopic study of the coordination and valence of Fe and Mn ions in and on the surface of aluminas and silicas. Disc. Faraday Soc., 52, 121–31.
Remond, G., Cesbron, F., Chapoulie, R., Ohnenstetter, D., Roques-Carmes, C., Schvoerer, M. (1992) Cathodoluminescence applied to the microcharacterization of mineral materials: a present status in experimentation and interpretation. Scanning Microscopy, 6, 2368.
Stevens-Kalceff, M.A., Phillips, M.R. (1995) Cathodoluminescence microcharacterization of the defect structure of quartz. Phys. Rev. B, 52, 3122–34.
Townsend, P.D., Can, N., Chandler, P.J., Farmery, B.W., Lopez-Herreredos, R., Peto, A., Salvin, L., Underdown, D. and Yang, B. (1998) Comparisons of tin depth profile analyses in float glass. J. Non Cryst. Solids, 223, 7385.
Walker, G. and Burley, S. (1991) Luminescence petrography and spectroscopic studies of diamagnetic minerals. In Luminescence Microscopy, (Barker, C.E. and Kopp, O.C., eds.).
Williams, K.F.E., Johnson, C.E., Greengrass, J., Tilley, B.P., Gelder, D. and Johnson, J.A. (1996) Tin oxidation states, depth profiles of Sn2+ and Sn4+ in float glass by Mössbauer spectroscopy. J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 211, 164–72.
Yacobi, B.G. and Holt, D.B. (1986) Cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy of semiconductors. J. Appl. Phys., 59, R1R24.
Yacobi, B.G. and Holt, D.B. (1990) Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Inorganic Solids. Plenum Press, New York.
Yang, B., Townsend, P.D., Can, N., Janke, A., Baniel, P., Blanc, O. and Granier, J. (1997) Luminescence of levitated Zr-Ba-LaAl-Na fluoride glass. Phys. Rev. B, 56, 5876–84.
Zhang, Q., Yang, B., White, D.R.R., Townsend, P.D. and Luff, B.J. (1994) Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst. Rad. Measurements, 23, 423–31.

Keywords

Recent examples of cathodoluminescence as a probe of surface structure and composition

  • P. D. Townsend (a1), T. Karali (a1), A. P. Rowlands (a1), V. A. Smith (a1) and G. Vazquez (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.