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Micro-Topography and Reactivity of Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Study in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)

  • M.G. Gandolfi (a1), P. Taddei (a1), F. Siboni (a1), V. Perrotti (a2), G. Iezzi (a2), A. Piattelli (a2) and C. Prati (a1)...


The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after soaking in HBSS; the detection of the 961 cm−1 Raman band confirms this finding. These implants showed a micro-textured surface supporting the formation of CaPs when immersed in SBF. These properties may likely favor bone anchorage and healing by stimulation of mineralizing cells.


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Micro-Topography and Reactivity of Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Study in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)

  • M.G. Gandolfi (a1), P. Taddei (a1), F. Siboni (a1), V. Perrotti (a2), G. Iezzi (a2), A. Piattelli (a2) and C. Prati (a1)...


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