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Evaluating Young's Modulus of Single Yeast Cells Based on Compression Using an Atomic Force Microscope with a Flat Tip

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 January 2021

Di Chang
Affiliation:
Department of Micro-Nano Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Room 108, Aerospace Mechanical Engineering Research Building, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Takahiro Hirate
Affiliation:
Department of Micro-Nano Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Room 108, Aerospace Mechanical Engineering Research Building, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Chihiro Uehara
Affiliation:
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aobayama 6-6-07, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Hisataka Maruyama
Affiliation:
Department of Micro-Nano Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Room 108, Aerospace Mechanical Engineering Research Building, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Nobuyuki Uozumi
Affiliation:
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aobayama 6-6-07, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Fumihito Arai
Affiliation:
Department of Micro-Nano Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Room 108, Aerospace Mechanical Engineering Research Building, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
Corresponding

Abstract

In this research, atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a flat tip cantilever is utilized to measure Young's modulus of a whole yeast cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741). The results acquired from AFM are similar to those obtained using a microfluidic chip compression system. The mechanical properties of single yeast cells are important parameters which can be examined using AFM. Conventional studies apply AFM with a sharp cantilever tip to indent the cell and measure the force-indentation curve, from which Young's modulus can be calculated. However, sharp tips introduce problems because the shape variation can lead to a different result and cannot represent the stiffness of the whole cell. It can lead to a lack of broader meaning when evaluating Young's modulus of yeast cells. In this report, we confirm the differences in results obtained when measuring the compression of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) bead using a commercial sharp tip versus a unique flat tip. The flat tip effectively avoids tip-derived errors, so we use this method to compress whole yeast cells and generate a force–deformation curve. We believe our proposed method is effective for evaluating Young's modulus of whole yeast cells.

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Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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