The main milestones of the development of the modern steel industry are recalled and the changes
which have occurred during the last ten years of the 20th Century are examined in the light of the
evolution of the economical context in that period (protection of the environment, energy
management, development of electric arc steelmaking and of compact and efficient production units,
etc.). Several trends for the future evolution of the steel industry are discussed : environment friendly
technologies and operations, controlled recycling of scrap, deep modifications for the electric arc
furnace, methods for reducing the emission of greenhouse gas, etc.