Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Analyzing energy and resource efficiency measures in the steel and zinc industry combining flowsheet simulation with a linear material and energy flow model

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 September 2012

Get access

Abstract

The German metal industry is confronted with an enforcing international competition, rising prices of energy and commodities, the increasing relevance of sustainable economy, political demands and incentives such as emission trading. To meet these challenges it is essential for companies to further improve resource and energy efficiency and to reduce CO2 emissions. Usually, efforts concerning these objectives focus on new or improved single processes. In contrast, the presented approach extends the considerations to the inter-company perspective and considers multiple processes from ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry which are linked by material flows. Our considerations focus on residue flows in the iron and steel as well as the zinc industry. Steel production in integrated steelworks or electric steel plants involves the formation of large amounts of by-products, e.g. dusts, sludges or slags. These contain valuable substances such as iron or zinc and can be further processed by internal re-feeding or external recycling, e.g. by specialized companies, particularly Waelz kiln plants or the DK process. The latter produce zinc concentrates for the zinc industry. Changes in the modes of operation of one or more process can therefore affect the connected processes. We investigate strategies to further reduce landfilling and to efficiently allocate by-products to internal and external recycling options within the scope of the sketched network. We develop flowsheet models for representative processes within the regarded industries in Germany. With an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), an integrated steelworks, two recycling companies, and a hydrometallurgical zinc plant the major processes of the German iron, steel and zinc industries are considered. We derive linear input-output functions for each of the processes by means of multiple linear regression analysis which we apply on results of systematically varied flowsheet simulation runs. These functions are used in a system of linear equations, forming a material and energy flow model of the regarded network. The model is applied to identify and assess strategies and measures to enhance resource and energy efficiency and to reduce climate relevant CO2 emissions by scenario and sensitivity analyses. Thus, technical and economical barriers of inter-company measures can be overcome by identifying strategies which are technologically feasible and favorable with regard to the named objectives.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© EDP Sciences 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

D. Ameling, G. Endemann, Steel – Best choice for efficiency of resources, Steel Institute VDEh, Düsseldorf, 2007
R. Fandrich, H.B. Lüngen, G. Harp, C.-H. Schütz, Entwicklungsstand des Oxygenstahl- und Elektrostahlverfahrens. In : Stahl und Eisen, 129, 2009, pp. 20-30
EIPPC, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel. European IPPC-Bureau, 2001, Sevilla
O. Rentz, H. Püchert, T. Penkuhn, T. Spengler, Stoffstrommanagement in der Eisen- und Stahlindustrie, Konkretisierung des Section 5 Abs. 1 Nr. 3 BImSchG, Berichte des Umweltbundesamtes 5/96, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin, 1996
A. Ruh, T. Krause, The Waelz Process in Europe. In : 3. Seminar Networking between Zinc and Steel, GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Ressource and Environment Technology e. V., Heft 125, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 2011, pp. 35–46
C. Hillmann, K.-J. Sassen, Solutions for dusts and sludges from the BOF process. In : Stahl und Eisen 126, 2006, pp. S149-S156
H. Bartusch, A.M. Fernandez Alcalde, M. Fröhling, F. Schultmann, F. Schwaderer, Erhöhung der Energie- und Ressourceneffizienz und Reduzierung der Treibhausgasemissionen in der Eisen-, Stahl und Zinkindustrie. Final report of the research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi), KIT Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe, 2012, (in press)
M. Fröhling, F. Schwaderer, H. Bartusch, F. Schultmann, A Material Flow-Based Approach to Enhance Resource Efficiency in Production and Recycling Networks. In : Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2012, (in press)
F. Schultmann, Stoffstrombasiertes Produktionsmanagement, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin, 2003
J. Hartung, B. Elpelt, K.-H. Klösner, Statistik - Lehr- und Handbuch der angewandten Statistik, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich and Vienna, 1998

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 11 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-q2rfn Total loading time: 0.594 Render date: 2021-01-27T05:05:16.557Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Analyzing energy and resource efficiency measures in the steel and zinc industry combining flowsheet simulation with a linear material and energy flow model
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Analyzing energy and resource efficiency measures in the steel and zinc industry combining flowsheet simulation with a linear material and energy flow model
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Analyzing energy and resource efficiency measures in the steel and zinc industry combining flowsheet simulation with a linear material and energy flow model
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *