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METHODS FOR MASS-PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL CONTROL AGENTS OF GRASSHOPPERS AND LOCUSTS

  • Nina E. Jenkins (a1) and Mark S. Goettel (a2)

Abstract

The success of microbial control programmes often depends on an adequate mass-production method for the agent used. The pathogens with potential for use against grasshoppers and locusts vary widely in the ease with which they can be mass-produced. Obligate pathogens such as grasshopper entomopoxviruses, mermithid nematodes and Nosema locustae Canning are currently restricted to culture in living systems. Liquid fermentation is usually employed for the production of non-obligate pathogens such as bacteria, some fungi and nematodes, but in some cases the propagules produced in liquid culture are not amenable to formulation and application. Conidia of hyphomycete fungi can be produced on the surface of liquid media, on solid substrates or in diphasic systems. Production on solid substrates has been adopted for production of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes and some fungi. Diphasic liquid-solid fermentation combines the benefits of both systems and is used mostly for mass-production of hyphomycete fungi such as Metarhizium flavoviride Gams & Rozsypal and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. Increased commercial interest in biological control is likely to accelerate the development of improved and more economical methods for the mass-production of microbial control agents.

Le succès des programmes de lutte biologique microbienne suppose bien souvent l'utilisation d'une méthode adéquate de production en masse de l'agent utilisé. La facilité de production des pathogènes susceptibles d'être efficaces contre les criquets varie considérablement. Les pathogènes obligés, comme les entomopoxviruses des criquets, les nématodes mermithidés et Nosema locustae Canning sont actuellement restreints aux cultures dans des systèmes vivants. La fermentation liquide est la méthode ordinairement utilisée dans la production de pathogènes non obligés comme les bactéries et certains champignons et nématodes. Cependant, en certains cas, les propagules produit en liquide ne sont pas utilisables lors de la préparation et de l'application. Les conidies des champignons hyphomycètes peuvent être produites à la surface de milieux liquides, sur des substrats solides ou dans des systèmes à deux phases. Les substrats solides ont été adoptés pour la production de nématodes steinetnématidés et hétérorhabditidés et de certains champignons. La fermentation biphasique liquide-solide comporte les avantages des deux systèmes et sert surtout dans la production de champignons hyphomycètes tels Metarhizium flavoviride Gams et Rozsypal et Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. L'intérêt accru pour la lutte biologique sur une base commerciale accélérera sans doute l'apparition des méthodes améliorées et plus économiques de production en masse d'agents microbiens de lutte biologique. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

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METHODS FOR MASS-PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL CONTROL AGENTS OF GRASSHOPPERS AND LOCUSTS

  • Nina E. Jenkins (a1) and Mark S. Goettel (a2)

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