I write X for the point (x1, x2, …, xn) of n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn. The coordinates x1, x2, …, xn are real numbers. The origin (0, 0,…, 0) is denoted by O. If t is a real number, tX denotes the point (tx1, tx2, …, txn); in particular, − X is the point (−x1, −x2,…, −xn). Also X + Y denotes the point {x1 + y1, x2 + y2, …, xn + yn).