While this paper is principally a continuation of [5], with as its object the application of sections 6 and 7 of that paper to obtain results related to the Buchsbaum–Rim multiplicity, it also has connections with [8] which are the subject of the first of the four sections. These concern integral equivalence of finitely generated R-modules. where R is an arbitrary noetherian ring. We therefore introduce a finitely generated R-module M and relate to it a short exact sequence (s.e.s.),
where F is a free module generated by m elements u1,…, um, and L is generated by elements yj, (j = 1, …, n), of F. We identify the elements u1, …, um with a set of indeterminates X1, …, Xm, and F with the R-module S1 of elements of degree 1 of the graded ring S = R[X1, …, Xm].