Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mesophotic surveys of the flora and fauna at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean

  • Daniel Wagner (a1), Randall K. Kosaki (a1), Heather L. Spalding (a2), Robert K. Whitton (a3), Richard L. Pyle (a3), Alison R. Sherwood (a2), Roy T. Tsuda (a3) and Barbara Calcinai (a4)...

Abstract

Despite its extreme geographical isolation, numerous expeditions have surveyed the marine flora and fauna of Johnston Atoll. However, historical information about the marine biodiversity of Johnston is mostly limited to SCUBA surveys in shallow-waters (<30 m), and submersible observations in deeper waters (100–500 m). Extensive coral reefs, known as mesophotic coral ecosystems, exist between these two depth ranges at Johnston, but have remained largely unexplored. We used closed-circuit rebreathers to survey eleven sites at mesophotic depths (32–78 m) surrounding Johnston Atoll. A total of 130 species were recorded, including 99 species of fish, 15 species of corals, nine species of macroalgae, three species of echinoderms, three species of sponges and one species of squat lobster. Most species recorded during our mesophotic surveys have previously been recorded on shallow-water (<30 m) reefs at Johnston, with the exception of one black coral, one zoanthid, one squat lobster, two macroalgae, three sponges, and 22 fish, which represent new records for the atoll. As noted in previous studies, our surveys found a near absence of endemism, and recorded high proportions of species that are also known from the Hawaiian Archipelago. The similarity between the mesophotic biodiversity of Johnston Atoll and Hawaiʻi provides further support for the strong connectivity between these two locations highlighted in previous studies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Mesophotic surveys of the flora and fauna at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Mesophotic surveys of the flora and fauna at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Mesophotic surveys of the flora and fauna at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Parts of this are a work of the U.S. Government and not subject to copyright protection in the United States. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: D. Wagner, NOAA, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, 1845 Wasp Boulevard, Building 176, Honolulu, HI 96818, USA email: Daniel.Wagner@noaa.gov

References

Hide All
Agegian, C.R. and Abbott, I.A. (1985) Deep water macroalgal communities: a comparison between Penguin Bank (Hawaii) and Johnston Atoll. Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti 5, 4750.
Amerson, A.B. and Shelton, P.C. (1976) The natural history of Johnston Aoll, Central Pacific Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin 192, 1479.
Bailey-Brock, J.H. (1976) Habitats of tubicolous polychaetes from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Pacific Science 30, 6981.
Boehlert, G.W., Watson, W. and Sun, L.C. (1992) Horizontal and vertical distributions of larval fishes around an isolated oceanic island in the tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Research 39, 439466.
Brainard, R., Maragos, J., Schroeder, R., Kenyon, J., Vroom, P., Godwin, S., Hoeke, R., Aeby, G., Moffitt, R., Lammers, M., Gove, J., Timmers, M., Holzwarth, S. and Kolinski, S. (2005) The state of coral reef ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific remote island areas. In Waddell, J. (ed.) The state of coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific freely associated states: 2005. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Montoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team, pp. 338372.
Brock, V., Jones, R.S. and Helfrich, P. (1965) An ecological reconnaissance on Johnston Island and the effects of dredging. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, 90 pp.
Brock, V., Van Heukelem, W. and Helfrich, P. (1966) An ecological reconnaissance on Johnston Island and the effects of dredging. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, 56 pp.
Brock, V.E. and Chamberlain, T.C. (1968) A geological and ecological reconnaissance off western Oahu, Hawaii, principally by means of the research submarine ‘Asherah’. Pacific Science 22, 373394.
Bryan, E.H. (1926) Insects of Hawaii, Johnston Island and Wake Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 31, 194.
Buggeln, R.G. and Tsuda, R.T. (1969) A record of benthic marine algae from Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin 120, 120.
Chave, E.H. and Malahoff, A. (1998) In deeper waters: photographic studies of Hawaiian deep-sea habitats and life-forms. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Chave, E.H. and Mundy, B.C. (1994) Deep-sea benthic fish of the Hawaiian Archipelago, Cross Seamount, and Johnston Atoll. Pacific Science 48, 367409.
Chilson, L.M. (1953) Insect records from Johnston Atoll. Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society 15, 8184.
Clark, A.H. (1949) Ophiuroidea of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Bulletin 195, 1133.
Coles, S.L., DeFelice, R.C. and Minton, D. (2001) Marine species survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000. Bishop Museum Technical Report 19, 164.
Edmondson, C.H., Fisher, W.K., Clark, H.L., Treadwell, A.L. and Cushman, J.A. (1925) Marine zoology of the tropical central Pacific. Bishop Museum Bulletin 27, 1148.
Fowler, H.W. and Ball, S.C. (1925) Descriptions of new fishes obtained by the Tanager Expedition of 1923 in the Pacific Islands west of Hawaii. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 76, 269274.
Gosline, W.A. (1955) The inshore fauna of Johnston Island, a Central Pacific atoll. Pacific Science 9, 442480.
Grigg, R.W. (1981) Acropora in Hawaii. Part 2. Zoogeography. Pacific Science 35, 1524.
Grigg, R.W., Polovina, J.J., Friedlander, A.M. and Rohmann, S.O. (2008) Biology of coral reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In Riegl, B.M. and Dodge, R.E. (eds) Coral reefs of the USA. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 573594.
Grigg, R.W., Wells, J.W. and Wallace, C. (1981) Acropora in Hawaii. Part 1. History of the scientific record, systematics, and ecology. Pacific Science 35, 113.
Harada, R.M., Campbell, S. and Li, Q.X. (2006) Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis sp. nov., a novel gammaproteobacterium isolated from Johnston Atoll, North Pacific Ocean International Journal of Systemic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56, 11031107.
Hoover, J.P. (2006) Hawaiʻi's sea creatures—a guide to Hawai‘i’s marine invertebrates (revised edition). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Mutual Publishing.
Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A. and Smith, C.M. (2007) Hawaiian reef plants. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
Jokiel, P.L. and Tyler, W.A. (1992) Distribution of stony corals in Johnston Atoll lagoon. Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium 2, 683692.
Kahng, S.E., Copus, J.M. and Wagner, D. (2014) Recent advances in the ecology of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7, 7281.
Kahng, S.E., Garcia-Sais, J.R., Spalding, H.L., Brokovich, E., Wagner, D., Weil, E., Hinderstein, L. and Toonen, R.J. (2010) Community ecology of mesophotic coral reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 29, 255275.
Kahng, S.E. and Kelley, C.D. (2007) Vertical zonation of megabenthic taxa on a deep photosynthetic reef (50–140 m) in the Au'au Channel, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 26, 679687.
Kahng, S.E. and Maragos, J.E. (2006) The deepest, zooxanthellate scleractinian corals in the world? Coral Reefs 25, 254.
Kane, C., Kosaki, R.K. and Wagner, D. (2014) High levels of mesophotic reef fish endemism in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 90, 693703.
Keating, B. (1985) Submersible observations on the flanks of Johnston Island (Central Pacific Ocean). Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress 6, 413418.
Kobayashi, D.R. (2006) Colonization of the Hawaiian Archipelago via Johnston Atoll: a characterization of oceanographic transport corridors for pelagic larvae using computer simulation. Coral Reefs 25, 407417.
Kohler, K.E. and Gill, S.M. (2006) Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe): a Visual Basic program for the determination of coral and substrate coverage using random point count methodology. Computers & Geosciences 32, 12591269.
Kornicker, L.S. and Harrison-Nelson, E. (2005) Ostracoda from Johnston Atoll, Pacific Ocean, and proposal of a new tribe, Bruuniellini (Myodocopina: Cylindroleberididae). Pacific Science 59, 323362.
Kosaki, R.K. (1989) Centropyge nahackyi, a new species of angelfish from Johnston Atoll (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae). Copeia 4, 880886.
Kosaki, R.K., Pyle, R.L., Randall, J.E. and Irons, D.K. (1991) New records of fishes from Johnston Atoll, with notes on biogeography. Pacific Science 45, 186203.
Lobel, P.S. and Lobel, L.K. (2008) Aspects of the biology and geomorphology of Johnston and Wake Atolls, Pacific Ocean. In Riegl, B.M. and Dodge, R.E. (eds) Coral reefs of the USA. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 655689.
Maragos, J.E. and Jokiel, P.L. (1986) Reef corals of Johnston Atoll: one of the world's most isolated reefs. Coral Reefs 4, 141150.
Maragos, J.E., Potts, D.C., Aeby, G., Gulko, D., Kenyon, J., Siciliano, D. and VanRavenswaay, D. (2004) 2000–2002 rapid ecological assessment of corals (Anthozoa) on shallow reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Part 1: species and distribution. Pacific Science 58, 211230.
NOAA (2006) PIFSC cruise report CR-06-08. Honolulu, Hawaii: NOAA, 100 pp.
Olson, S.L. (1996) History and ornithological journals of the Tanager expedition of 1923 to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Johnston and Wake Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 433, 1210.
Parrish, F.A. and Boland, R.C. (2004) Habitat and reef-fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biology 144, 10651073.
Ralston, S., Gooding, R.M. and Ludwig, G.M. (1986) An ecological survey and comparison of bottom fish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston Atoll. Fishery Bulletin 84, 141155.
Randall, J.E. (2007) Reef and shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
Randall, J.E., Lobel, P.S. and Chave, E.H. (1985) Annotated checklist of the fishes of Johnston Island. Pacific Science 39, 2480.
Randall, J.E. and Ralston, S. (1984) A new species of serranid fish of the genus Anthias from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island. Pacific Science 38, 220227.
Rivera, M.A.J., Andrews, A.H., Kobayashi, D.R., Wren, J.L.K., Kelley, C.D., Roderick, G.K. and Toonen, R.J. (2011) Genetic analyses and simulations of larval dispersal reveal distinct populations and directional connectivity across the range of the Hawaiian Grouper (Epinephelus quernus). Journal of Marine Biology 2011, 11 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/765353.
Rivera, M.A.J., Kelley, C.D. and Roderick, G.K. (2004) Subtle population genetic structure in the Hawaiian grouper, Epinephelus quernus (Serranidae) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA analyses. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81, 449468.
Rooney, J., Donham, E., Montgomery, A., Spalding, H., Parrish, F., Boland, R., Fenner, D., Gove, J. and Vetter, O. (2010) Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Coral Reefs 29, 361367.
Smith, R. and Swain, J. (1882) Notes on a collection of fishes from Johnston's Islands, including descriptions of five new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5, 119143.
Spalding, H.L. (2012) Ecology of mesophotic macroalgae and Halimeda kanaloana meadows in the main Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii.
Timmers, M.A., Andrews, K.R., Bird, C.E., deMaintenton, M.J., Brainard, R.E. and Toonen, R.J. (2011) Widespread dispersal of the crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, across the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Atoll. Journal of Marine Biology, 10 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/934269.
Tsuda, R.T., Abbott, I.A., Vroom, P.S. and Fisher, J.R. (2010) Marine benthic algae of Johnston Atoll: new species records, spatial distribution, and taxonomic affinities with neighboring islands. Pacific Science 64, 585605.

Keywords

Mesophotic surveys of the flora and fauna at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean

  • Daniel Wagner (a1), Randall K. Kosaki (a1), Heather L. Spalding (a2), Robert K. Whitton (a3), Richard L. Pyle (a3), Alison R. Sherwood (a2), Roy T. Tsuda (a3) and Barbara Calcinai (a4)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed